Friday, March 19, 2010

Burmah Road(車水路) & Pulau Tikus

Map of Burmah Road

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Burmah Road or Jalan Burmah is located between Penang Road and Gottlieb Road, Bagan Jermal Road and Mount Erskine Road. It is one of the main road in Georgetown and a long throughout. Burma Road was the only road where, once upon a time, you can meet communities from South-east Asia and the Middle-east. Most of the communities are sadly gone today due to commercial development of their 'kampungs'(villages) or because of migration.

It was named after the neighboring country Burma, as there was a Burmese village (Kampong Ava) at Burmah Lane. The villagers come from Burma. It is spelled with a "h", the British transliteration of foreign names. So Burmah Road and not Burma Road.

The Malay also called Burmah Road, Jalan Kereta Ayer, Jalan Tarik Air, and Titi Papan.

The road was initially called Gu-chia-chui(牛車水), literally means water from bullock cart. Gu(牛)is bull or cow, in Mandarin it is niu(牛), gu-chia(牛車) is bullock cart. But gradually the local called chia-tsui-lo(車水路). To call gu-chia-chui-lo, and shorten to chia-chui-lo, the gu(牛) was taken out. The Chinese now called the street Chhia-tsúi-lơ̄(車水路), Malay called it Jalan Kreta Ayer. Literally both in Chinese and Malay,it is water cart. Chhia(車) is carriage or car, tsui(水)is water, so chhia-tsui is cart water, chhia-tsui-lo is cart water road, referring to the water not the cart. Some said it is Drawing-water road which is after the aquaduct that ran along the road. The name refers to an essential earlier-century activity that may appear totally alien to a 21st century piped-water world. Before piped water became an expected part of life, fresh water had to be carried - on ox-carts, and often, on shoulders - from waterfalls and springs, to awaiting buyers in town. Burmah Road was the route taken by these water bearers, and that route became known by that essential task. Drawing water road is referring to the activity of drawing water, not within the meaning of the Chinese name, but the Malay did call it Jalan Tarik Air.

Part of the street is also called Kuan Yin Miu Chin which mean in front of the Kuan Yin temple or Kuan Yin Si(车水路观音寺). The temple is famous for celebration of 9 emperors gods by Buddhist Chinese, during the 9th month of Lunar calendar, where the street will lined with hawkers selling vegetarian foods. The part of the road is after Telekom (Madras Lane) to Kedah Road/ Jalan Zainal Abidin.

Like many of the major roads in Penang, Burmah Road began as a rural road. Burmah road is a long road out from Georgetown, considered suburb or outside urban area. Old Penang people will not divided the street as what they did to the street in Georgetown city. Mentally old Penang people are Georgetown centric, they are more concern on Georgetown, any place out of Georgetown is suburban. The whole street is still called Chhia-tsui-lo(車水路), despite it is a long road.

The street can actually divided into 4 sections:

1. Penang Road - Anson Road
2. Anson Road - Pangkok Road
3. Pangkor Road -Cantonment Road
4. Cantonment Road - Gottlieb Road(Pulau Tikus)

1. Penang Road - Anson Road

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The city end of Burmah Road begin at a point where, up till the turn of the 20th century, there was a plank bridge across the Prangin Canal. The canal is still around, albeit buried under the ground, emerging only at Sia Boey. It used to continue all the way to Transfer Road, where it connects to another ditch that leads out into North Beach, where Jalan Sultan Ahmad Shah is located today, effectively creating an island out of George Town. The plank bridge is remembered in the name of Masjid Titi Papan located in the vicinity.

Loke Thye Kee Restaurant, today a forlorn structure, stands at the junction of Burmah Road and Penang Road. As we go down Burmah Road, after Jalan Khoo Sian Ewe or Khoo Sian Ewe Road( 邱善佑路),is Masjid Titi Papan. After Masjid Titi Papan is a row of shops(Wisma Cheok Holding) until a colonial bungalow, at the corner of Burmah/Transfer Road junction. Opposite is the Embassy Hotel, there was once popular coffee shop there, when Rex cinema was still opened. Beside the hotel building was once a supermarket(Kamdar), and a small mosque Masjid Tengah. Next is Penang Khek Association(槟州客属公会), a Hakka Association(No.34, Burmah Road). There was once fire that destroyed the supermarket, mosque and the Khek Association. The pillars that remained in front of Penang Khek Association after the fire, was donated Tiger Balm King, Aw Boon Haw. by The Malaysian Hakka Heritage Centre was located inside the Penang Khek Association building. Next to Hakka association is a clan association, Khaw Kongsi, or Saw Khaw Lean (Heah) Kongsi(苏许连宗祠, No.36 Burmah Road). The row of beautiful colonial residential houses reported owned by Penang personality(Loh Leong San?). The Kuan Yin See(观音寺), one of the biggest temples associated with the Nine Emperor Gods Festival is on a busy section of Burmah Road. It is after some modern building, including a Chinese bookshop/sport shop, Young Ones Shopping Centre, setup in 1978(No.48)and a restaurant starview. Kuan Yin Si is directly opposite Madras Lane/Lorong Madras. Between Kuan Yin Si and Kedah Road, there are pre-war houses which also house one of the fortune teller, which is based on Chinese traditional style, fortune teller is isolated from the customer,and not fronting them. Modern building there which house one of the largest aquarium complex in Penang. At the corner of Kedah Road/Burmah Road there is a coffee shop selling Ang Chiew Mee Sua(Red rice wine rice noodle), a Stiawan Hockchew noodle.

After Kedah Road, pre-war shop at the corner, followed by Prime Plaza, Tune hotel(No.100), and sea food restaurant before you reached the New World Park. New World Park is directly opposite Lorong Selamat. After New World Park is a row of beautiful residential pre-war houses, some have converted to coffee shop,office, and restaurants, and end with Kim Wah Hotel. After that is Swatow Lane junction.

After Swatow Lane, there was once a colonial bungalow which was used as a bar, but it had been destroyed by fire. During the 70s, it was the bar populated by the GI from their R&R off from Vietnam War. Row of shops between Swatow Lane and Nagor Road.

After Nagor Road, a row of colonial residential houses, which was converted into restaurant and offices. Then come Penang Plaza,one of the early shopping mall. It is located at the corner of Burmah Road and Anson Road, once the anchor tenant was Cold Storage, Fima and now Giant supermarket.

The other side of road, left from Penang Road start at the row of shops which was formerly antique shops now renovated. Crossing a small alley is row of pre-war shops before reaching Ariffin Court/Halaman Ariffin, direct opposite Masjid Titi Papan. Crossing the road at the corner is a dilapidated building looked like formerly a workshop,now used by a mamak stall. Next a bungalow which is rented to many tenants, like Hong Kong movie "72 tenants". Hong Leong Bank is at the corner of Macalister Lane. Then is a row of pre-war shop houses, within which is a popular coffee shop selling Hainanese roti babi, a stall selling popular koay teow th'ng from Pitt Street, and Hockieen mee(Prawn noodle). The row end with a coffee shop at the corner of Kinta Lane. Opposite was a Rex cinema now a furniture shop, Rex cinema is directly opposite Penang Hakka Association.

After Kinta Lane to Madras Lane is Telekom office and workshop. Between Madras Lane to Jalan Zainal Abidin is row of double storey pre-war shops, which end at corner bunglow,now a bar. There was once Jewish community at Jalan Zainal Abidin, former known as Jahudi Road, but now most of them had migrated to Australia. A cemetary was left. One blogger wrote that the Bawean or Boyan 'pondok' was further down the road, which had make way for development. The Bawean migrated from an island off Java and most of them work as horse handlers with the Turf Club or as drivers. I cannot trace any sign now of their presence. The area was formerly government quarters. The land between Jalan Zainal Abidin and Lorong Selamat is now vacant, all former government quarters had demolished.

At the corner of Rangoon Road was formerly Super supermarket, then Lai Lai and now a hair dressing school/saloon. At the corner of Aboo Sitte Lane is Masjid Tarik Air, a mosque having historical name similar to Burmah Road's Malay name. Opposite the Majid Tarik Air, at Abo Sittee Lane, there are a fresh coconut stalls; where you can tarik air(drawing water) from the coconut fruit, when you are tired and thirsty walking around Georgetown. A modern way to tarik air, taking water from fresh coconut, and enjoy a fresh coconut fruit juice here. Crossing the Abo Sittee Lane is a row of pre- war shops,mainly occupied by Indian Tamils.

Finally you come to Anson Road, with the See Hoy Chan Penang building, now BMW car show room.

Masjid Titi Papan

Masjid Titi Papan is a small heritage mosque at the corner of Jalan Burmah and Jalan Khoo Sian Ewe. This mosque was dated back to 1893, and is significant for being the point where the Praingin Canal used to reach. It was connected with Transfer Road canal. The Prangin Canal is now only visible at part of the way near Jalan Dr Lim Chwee Leong, sia bui wholesale market. There was a plank bridge(or Titi papan)across the canal. The mosque was named after the plank bridge.

Jalan Transfer was created in 1867, and was so named to commemorate the "transfer" of administration of Penang from India to Singapore, under the Straits Settlements. The area was initially inhabited by Jawi Peranakan, people of mixed race with Indian Muslim with Malay wives. Masjid Titi Papan used to be the community mosque for the Peranakan Jawis that lived in a settlement around it in the mid 19th century. The community had moved out and replaced with South Indian Muslim called Tamil.

Masjid Tarik Air

Masjid Tarik Air is a small mosque along Burmah Road, George Town, at the junction with Aboo Sittee Lane. It dates to 1880, a time when pipe water is not readily available, and some families need to purchase water from the water carriers.

In the old days, there were Indian water carriers,who will collect fresh water from the Waterfall at Botanical Garden(the Botanical Gardens Waterfall) and carry it all the way to the town. The water were carried by bullock carts, some coolies also carrying water pails on yokes. That is why Burmah Road is known in Hokkien as Chia Chooi Lor(車水路), literally means cart(車) water(水) road(路). The Malay called it Jalan Kereta Ayer in Malay, meaning "water cart road".

Masjid Tarik Air was a stop for the tired coolies, and also the mosque was where the coolies gather for rest and perform their prayer, especially on Friday. The water carriers are Indian Muslims, they are to have their daily prayers before continuing their journey to the town.

2. Anson Road - Pangkor Road

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At the junction of Anson Road, Wesley Methodist Church(No.136) had been there for long time. the church building was built between 1911-1912. It was also the head quarter of Boy's Brigade and Girl Brigade. After the church is Clove Hall Road, Arraton Road, Phuah Hin Leong Road, Tavoy Road, all these are residential areas. Between Phuah Hin Leong and Tavoy Road is the outlet of Ghee Hiang biscuit outlet(义香饼家), established 1856(No.144i), and at the corner of Tavoy Road is a corner coffee shop, which is popular food hub. Farther down the road, two more churches appear, the Adventist Church(N0. 160) at the corner of Tavoy Road, the building was a new building; and Gospel Hall(N0.164), which is an old established church(built in 1938),located at the corner of Chong Thye Road. Between Adventist Church and Gospel Hall is the famous Him Heang biscuit shop(162A,馨香餅家 ). Between Jalan Services and Pangkor Road are Chin Woo Recreation Club, Malaysian Buddhist Association(No. 182), Clan Association Lee Sih Chong Soo Long Say Tong(No.182-A) in Penang (槟城李氏宗祠陇西堂). The area was concentration of government quarters.

From Anson Road corner is a furniture shop, then to Pykett Methodist school(Sekolah Kebangsaan Pykett Methodist) school field. The road beside the field is Pykett Road, but Malay is Lebuhraya Pykett(?). Farther down the road is the row of old resdient houses, now all converst to shops and row of modern shops. Then is the Union Chinese Primary School(Sekolah Jenis Kebangsaan Union, 协和小学). In front of Union school, there is a stall selling apong( a type of pancake), which is popular. They called him Apong Guan.

At both side of Mandalay Road are two coffee shop which are popular, especially prawn noodle. Followed are Immigration Road and Loh Boon Siew Road. These are residential area. Before Immigration Road, the heritage hotel 1926(N0.227)is there. Toward the junction with Pangkor Road, the CRC (Chinese Recreation Club)at Victoria Green/Jalan Padang Victoria, with the Statue of Queen Victoria. Pangkor Road was formerly lined with pre-war standard bungalow units on the row opposite Gleneagle Hospital, now high end condominium.

3. Pangkor Road -Cantonment Road

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This part of the road was once villages of different communities, but many have gone due to commercial development in the area. Further down the road towards Pulau Tikus is Kampung Herriot (Malays and Jawi Peranakans), Kampung Hogan (mixed community), then Kampung Syed or Kampung Arab, Kebun Sireh (Chinese) followed by Kampung Awak (Burmese) and Kampung Siam (near the Thai Buddhist temple),Burmese and Thais had to make way for development. Except for Kampung Syed and Kampung Herriot, the other kampungs are mostly gone.

Beyond the Pangkor Road junction, Follow Me & Tohtonku Sdn Bhd's group head office(No,186) is located at a beautiful colonial bungalow. I wonder who was the old owner?. Jalan Lunas, Jalan Edgecumbe, Jalan Jones. Opposite Socso office is a Chinese Tua Pek Kong temple. Burmah Road enters what was the start of the Burmese-Siamese settlement. Thai and Burmese temples are tucked away off the main road, including Wat Buppharam in Perak Road, Wat Chaiyamangkalaram and the Dhammikarama at Burmah Lane. After Burmah Lane is Pulau Tikus Police Station , and then come the famous Bangkok Lane, where the whole road and the two rows of the residential houses are owned by one family.

Institute Perkim Goon(no.239) was one of the early commercial institution. After Institute Perkim Goon is Perak Road. After Burma Cresent(Lengkok Burma)is Poh Oo Toong Temple(N0.253D&F). At the corner of Cordington Avenue(Lebuhraya Cordington) is the Socso office, which was a let down. Across the road is Sin Quah Chuan building(Chay Yeong Tong Sin Quah Chuah Chong Soo,济阳堂辛柯蔡宗祠),a clan association, address at 37 Codrington Avenue. A row of modern shops to Moulmein Road, which is the entrance to Pulau Tikus Market. The street is active in the morning, where the two coffee shops at both side of the road is popular for breakfast patrons. A row of old pre-war shop before traffic light junction of Cantonment Road.

The Pulau Tikus market was at the end to Cantonment Road. From Moulmen Road turn right to Jalan Pasar.

4. Cantonment Road - Gottlieb Road(Pulau Tikus)

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The junction of Burmah Road and Cantonment Road marks the heart of Pulau Tikus district. The final section of Burmah Road, from Cantonment Road to Gottlieb Road, was traditionally a Eurasian settlement - called Kampung Serani - their presence is most conspicuously represented by the Church of Immaculate Conception, as well as such road names as Leandro's Lane. Kampung Serani, near the Pulau Tikus Cathedral. Most of the Seranis or Eurasians migrated to Australia or settled elsewhere in Penang and the other states. The Convernt Pulau Tikus school, One stop Shopping Complex(or Midland Park Shopping Complex), Berjaya Hotel.

Just beside Eon Bank is the first side road is Lorong Pulau Tikus or Pulau Tikus Lane, the road that use the name of Pulau Tikus. Followed by Lorong Berjaya, then Brown Road. After the Adventist Hospital(No.465) and Indonesia Consular office is Wright Road. The road then lead straight to the traffic junction of Gottlieb Road, Bagan Jermal Road and Mount Erskine Road.

Pulau Tikus(浮羅池滑)

Pulau Tikus(浮羅池滑) is now the name of a sub-urban area on the north-west part of George Town. Pulau Tikus proper starts near the junction between Jalan Burma and Jalan Edgecumbe and ends just before the Bagan Jermal junction. Jalan Burma (Burmah Road) forms the main artery through Pulau Tikus district. The very heart of Pulau Tikus centres on the Jalan Cantonment - Jalan Burma junction.

The name - Pulau Tikus
PULAU Tikus, literally in Malay language is Rat Island. Pulau is island, and tikus is rat or mouse. There is no island in the vicinity, and no places with history of rat infested area nearby. But "tikus" to Malay may also be meaning "small", a small island. There is an rocky islet off north eastern coast of Penang island, the name of the islet is Pulau Kechil(small island in Malay) or Pulau Tikus. This proved that the "tikus" is referring to small. But it was at Batu Ferenggi(which in Malay is called foreigner rock, ferenggi may be corrupted term of Siam word Farang, meaning foreigner,may be refer to "Farang Portuguese" or Faren-ggi), located about 2 km away, not within the sight of Pulau Tikus. It was reported that the Portuguese trader from Malacca used to anchor their boats for supplies of fresh water at Pulau Tikus(the islet)and waited for the waves to retreat and then walk on the sandy path to the land and to the place now they called Pulo Ticus...or Pulo Tikus. In old days, walking for miles or days is normal routine, so it is not surprising.

Please visit the website,on the article of Pulau Tikus, the small islet.

The documentary history
Father John Baptist Pasqual,in his own handwriting from his church records entitled ‘Liber Defunctorum, Ecclesioe, Districtus Pulo- Ticus Ad Anno 1811’, Fr Pasqual testifies that as a result of war and its devastations, he was moving his parish to ‘Civitate Pinang’, or more specifically ‘Pulau Tikus’ Penang. So, prior to 1811, the place already called Pulo Ticus. In 1809, the French Mission revived and built Collge General, which was first established in Ayuthia (Siam) in 1665, in Pualu Tikus, Penang, to train Priests for the Catholic Churches in Asia. So College General was established in Pulau Tikus in 1809, earlier than Father John Baptist Pasqual. The pioneer group of Eurasian from Phuket/Kuala Kedah who come in 1786, some of them may have moved out from the town and Agus Lane, may be they are allotted or purchased land in an area called Pulo Ticus. Some of the ship traders from Malacca may also have stay. Also take note James Scott owned land at Ayer Rajah estate, that is Pulau Tikus, this may have attracted people to move.

The history

Stories from the early settlers, and handed down by Mary Massang-Nieukey, tell of their arrival during the Portuguese Trading operations, which had stopovers at Batu Ferringghi [Ferringhi being the word that the Malays used to refer to the Portuguese traders who parked their ships at the rock island for fresh supplies] and Pulau Tikus [the island off the coast of Tanjung Tokong/Bungah, but the actual name is Pulau Kechil], and at low tide walked on the shoals of sand banks which appeared like the back of rats leading on to what is historically known as Pulau Tikus [an inland Island of Rats,in Malay it is called Pulau Tikus]. If that is so, there must be settlement or villages in the area e.g. Tanjong Bungah/Tanjong Tokong fishing villages. Tanjong Tokong in Malay literally means bay of temples, Chinese temples. The Hakka Chinese Zhang Li (张理) were there 40 years prior to the arrival of Capt Francis Light e.g. 1746, they are called Tua Pek Kong or Da Ba Koong(大伯公,literally means big granduncle) by the local Chinese. The place is called Hai Choo Yi(海珠屿), Yi(屿)is island in Chinese. It was reported there were 50 inhabitants, fishermen. There were Chinese and Malay in Tanjong Tokong area for trading to take place or obtain supplies by the Portuguese traders. For water supply, they need to go further to the river that flow from waterfall. The current Pulau Tikus was near to Tanjong Tokong, an inland island within the river(rivers of Bagan Jermal Road and Cantonment Road, which currently are covered drains flowing towards Gurney Drive). The said island may also called Pulau Tikus(a small island), a generic Malay terms for small islands. That is before 1786, otherwise the traders will anchored at the Penang port instead of Pulau Tikus, the islet. The island may also not the Pulau Tikus islet, but other small island e.g. Hai Choo Yi, the Malay called all small island, pulau kecil or pulau tikus.

In Pulau Tikus, there were pockets of Malayan/Thai-Portuguese Catholics settled in between the rivers of Bagan Jermal Road and Cantonment Road which currently are covered drains flowing towards Gurney Drive(This river come from waterfall garden, flowing through Scout Coronation Camp, then flowing through Mt Erskine Cemetery,behind Indian Recreation Club, and straight to Gurney Drive or Kuala Awal. It is now a shallow stream). This Catholic community remained loyal to their faith as given to them by their ancestors through the Portuguese Catholic Mission (cf. Nieukey, Ambrose, undated jottings). Pulau Tikus may be further north than the current Pulau Tikus area, near to Tanjong Tokong area. That is before 1809. (at the time, the water may have dry up and river become small stream, partly also due to the aquaduct drawing water to the town, and causing inland island joined with the side of river mouth to become inland and no more island, Pulau Tikus today)

Prior to Father John Baptist Pasqual arrival, ‘Pulo Ticus’ was mainly settled by Thai-Portuguese Catholics most of whom came from Phuket and were Father Pasqual’s relatives and friends. He set up his Church in a tent and the dead were buried around it, as it was then the practice, on land that is presently known as the Kelawei Road Catholic Cemetery. Kelawei Road was named after Kuala Awal, the first estuary west of George Town. The place is Kuala Awal not Pulo Ticus.....this is 1811.

It is believed that his relative Thomasia Pasqual and others such as Leandros, Jeremiahs, Gregorys and Josephs gave up their lands between the present College Lane and Leandros Lane to Father Pasqual where he built the first Church of The Immaculate Conception. This is the current Pulau Tikus area. The Pulo Ticus may have expanded from the river side after 1811. It reach the border of Cantonment Road, beyond that was Penang Burmese & Siamese territory.

The Burmese

The Burmese and Eurasians were the earliest settlers in Pulau Tikus. The Burmese had formed a settlement here in the early 19th century, and their presence remained until the early part of the 20th century. At that time, there was a Burmese village here called Kampong Ava - probably named after the town of Ava (today Inwa) in Myanmar. When the British administrators created the main road here, they named it Burmah Road. The off roads of Burmah Road were also named after places in Burma e.g. street names with Burmese origin including Burmah Road , Irrawaddi Road, Mandalay Street, Moulmein Road , Salween Road, Tavoy Road and Thaton Road.

Today, the Burmese presence in Pulau Tikus is best represented by the Dhammikarama Burmese Temple at Burmah Lane (Lorong Burma). It has been around since the beginning of the 19th century. The oldest part of the temple, the stupa, dates back to 1805.

The Eurasian
The Eurasians were another early group to settle in Pulau Tikus. They are of mixed parentage, between the Portuguese and the Thais, and are Roman Catholics. The people of Portuguese descent had had no peace to practise their faith since the Dutch arrive in Malacca in 1641. Religious persecution drove them out of Malacca. They settled in various Malay states as well as in Phuket, which at that time was called Ujung Salang (corrupted in English to Junk Ceylon), an island claimed by the Kingdom of Kedah but ruled by Siam. By the late 18th century, the Eurasians were on the run again, this time due to a decree by the increasingly demented king of Siam, Phraya Taksin @ Phya Tak, who ordered all Christians in Siam to be massacred. The Eurasians fled to Kuala Kedah, and from there, they made their way to Penang with Capt Francis Light. The wife of Capt Francis Light was reported to be Portuguese Eurasian.

The first Eurasian arrivals in Penang settled in town in the area bordered by Church Street, Bishop Street, Pitt Street and China Street, which is within the original grid of early Georgetown called Francis Light Grid. The houses were rather rudimental housing, before moving with their church, the Church of Assumption (so named because they arrived in Penang on the day of the Catholic Feast of the Assumption), to the Farquhar Street area, settling along Argus Lane.

There were still remnants of Eurasian community in Phuket going into the 19th century, until the Phya Tak Massacre of 1810 forced another group to Penang. Pulau Tikus had become an attractive location to settle down. They were parishioners of the Church of Our Lady Free From Sin. They arrived in 1811, headed by Father John Baptist Pasqual. In Pulau Tikus they built their church which the pope later renamed The Immaculate Conception.

Ayer Rajah Estate
To the south of Pulau Tikus, and often regarded as part of the district, is the affluent neighbourhood of Ayer Rajah. It is named after the Ayer Rajah Estate that once belonged to James Scott, who was a partner in business with David Brown, subsequently through intermarriage within the two families. Road names such as Brown Road and Scott Road commemorates these two pioneers.

Pulau Tikus Today
As George Town continues to expand its size, it eventually taken up the village of Pulau Tikus, which become the suburbs. Gone are the Burmese and Eurasian villages, which were demolished for property development. What remains are their temples and churches. A reminder that they were once here is only in the names of the streets in Pulau Tikue.

Some said Pulau Tikus also included Gurney Drive and Kelawei Road.... that I am not sure. But Pulau Tikus is under Parliament constituency of P.048 Bukit Bendera; which included N.22 Tanjong Bunga, N.23 Air Putih, N.24 Kebun Bunga, N.25 Pulau Tikus.

Related articles/websites:

1. Tune Hotel,
2. Jalan Macalister Road & Burmah Road,
3. Ghee Hiang corporate website,
4. Pulau Tikus Off northeast coast of Penang Island,
5. College General,
6. The story of Kampung Syed, Penang,
7. Pulau Tikus,
8. Pulau Tikus,

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