Thursday, September 23, 2010

Dunlop Road & Major Samuel Dunlop

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Dunlop Road or Jalan Dunlop

Dunlop Road is located between Anson Road and Dato Keramat Road. It is a side road off the two main roads.

Dunlop road, the name of Dunlop is popular in Malaysia, Dunlop tyre, Dunlop Plantation, is it named after John Boyd Dunlop (5 February 1840 – 23 October 1921)or John Dunlop? He was a Scottish inventor. He was one of the founders of the rubber company that bore his name, Dunlop Pneumatic Tyre Company. The famous Dunlop brand.... No, the road is not named after Dunlop brand or its founder.

Dunlop Road is named after Colonel Samuel Dunlop(b 1838-1917), the first Inspector General of Police, Strait Settlement. He was acting resident councillor of Penang, from 1884 to 1885.

Interestingly, during the period when Major John Frederick Adolphus McNair become Acting Lieutenant Governor from 1881 to 1884. Colonel Anson retired officially in 1882. That was the time Seven Streets Precinct was developed by Major McNair, and McNair Street was named after him, near Anson Bridge. Major Samuel Dunlop(1884-1885) succeeded Major McNair, a street was named Dunlop Road, located off Anson Road)

There is a side road called Merican Road connecting the Dunlop Road to Pahang Road, Merican Road is also a crescent-shaped road in George Town, its both ends open to Pahang Road. Merican Road may be named after Merican family of Penang or it may be named after Abdur Cauder Merican or Caudeer Mydin (Mohudeen) Merican,or Abdul Qauder Mohideen Merican( b1759 - d1834), the first Kapitan Kling of Penang. Kader Mydin Merican was a trader who became one of the richest men in the Penang of the 1830s. That he eminence rise in the Indian Muslim community was acknowledged by the British who appointed him Kapitan Keling. The fourth generation Merican produced the clan's first doctor, Dr Ali Osman Merican. `Oss', as he was called, was in fact Penang's first Malay doctor. Sheikh Basha Merican, was an educator who was instrumental in establishing and heading Rida College, the forerunner of Institute Teknologi Mara (ITM). Marina Yusoff, the country's second Malay woman lawyer who at one time landed an Umno Supreme Council seat, is a clan member. Kassim Merican worked in the Civil Service and his last appointment was as Superintendent of Mines in Kedah. In the article "History of the Chinese Recreation Club Penang 1892-1952" by Toh Hooi Choon, mentioned of Kassim Merican, who was one of the founders of the Chinese Recreation Club, he was the only non-Chinese member. Originally fromn Samarkand, the Mericans are now a melting pot of races ad cultures. Through intermarriage and cross-cultural exchanges, the Mericans have assimilated themselves with the Malay connunity.

There is another road around the area called Lorong Seratus Tahun(百年路), the road is in Malay which means hundred years road. The Chinese also called it pa-nee-lor. Can it be it was built 100 years after the founding of Penang as Britain's colony. 100 years after 1786, that is 1886. At that time, Major Dunlop had left Penang to Singapore, and become the Inspector General of Police Strait Settlement for the 2nd term. Allan Maclean Skinner was the Resident Councillor of Penang from 1887–1897. Sir Cecil Clementi Smith was Governor of the Crown Colony of the Straits Settlements at Singapore from 17 October 1887 to 30 August 1893.

But physically the area around Dunlop Road is a residential area, the houses are not prewar houses, the houses are much later than houses around Lorong Seratus Tahun. The houses are built probably after the war, may be in 20th century. The road may however built earlier. The Dunlop Street in Singapore was named in 1870s( source:

Colonel Samuel Dunlop

Samuel Dunlop CMG (b1838 - d1917) held the posts of Acting Commissioner of Police and Inspector General of Police in the Straits Settlements between 1870 until his retirement in 1891.

DUNLOP, Col. Samuel, CMG 1884 ; late RA ; born and baptized in 8th Mar. 1838

1856 - Educated at Royal Military Academy. Woolwich ; He was first Lt on 7-4-1856(source: Army List 1867)

He married in 1864, with Martha, daughter of Robt. Potts of Belfast.


He was the staff of Royal Military Academy. Woolwich as Lieutenants of Companies of Gentleman Cadets(source: The Public Schools Calendar, 1866, by gilbert and revington)
Entered RA 1866 and served until Nov 1870 when he become Acting Com of Police SS; retired as Hon. Col in 1882. He was captain on 10-10-1866

He was Acting Commissioner of Police. Straits Settlements in Nov 1870 for Thomas Dunman (1857-1871); acting police magistrate

1872 - Capt Samuel Dunlop was ordered to rejoin his battery in Hong Kong in 1872, he resigned in 1872 and was replaced by Captain Berger , who was Acting Superintendent of Police Penang, of 10th Regiment(source: Straits Times Overland Journal, 28 March 1872, Page 4, The Straits Times, 23 March 1872, Page 1 )

But the Government of the Straits Settlements specially asked for his return and he did so in November 1872, take up the appointment of Inspector General of Police. He held this office until he retired to England in 1890 or 1891?(source: The British as rulers: governing multiracial Singapore, 1867-1914; by Edwin Lee, Singapore University Press, National University of Singapore, 1991) Note: should be Commissioner of Police not Inspector General of Police, which he was appointed only in 1875)

Perak 1874-1876
1874 - Pangkor Treaty

Captain Samuel Dunlop, the Inspector-General, to Perak to invite all the Malay rajas and chiefs to meet him at Pangkor on 14th January 1874 for general talks, they were however not to be told the actual purpose of the meeting.

The Pangkor meeting took place in the middle of January 1874 on board the H. M. S. Pluto moored off the picturesque Island of Pangkor, off Perak state – the oldest Sultanate of the three Western states. Major Samuel Dunlop was one of the members of British team.

The three parties involved in the fateful engagement were the British, the Malay rulers, and the Chinese.

British Officials Present were:

* Major-General Sir Andrew Clarke, the Governor, Commander-in-Chief, and Vice-Admiral of the Straits Settlements
* Mr. Bradell, the Attorney-General
* Major J.F.A. McNair, the Colonial Engineer
* Colonel Samuel Dunlop, the Inspector-General of Police
* Mr. A.M. Skinner of the Secretariat
* William A. Pickering, officer in charge of Chinese affairs
* Frank A. Swettenham, interpreter of Malay from the Land Revenue Office

The Malay rulers present were

* Raja Abdullah
* Raja Idris
* Raja Bendahara
* the Mantri Ngah Ibrahim
* the Temenggong
* the Shahbandar
* the Raja Mahkota
* the Laxamana
* the Dato Sagor

Twenty six Chinese were present, led by their respective headmen, Chin Ah Yam of the Ghee Hins and Chung Keng Quee of the Hai Sans as well as Chinese interpreter, (Marcus Chong or Wong Ah Chong).

(source: wikipedia)

He was temporary Special Commr. for Perak affairs and Commr. to HM's Forces during operations in Perak


In 1875 he was appointed to the Commission for the Pacification of Larut serving alongside fellow commissioners McNair, Swettenham, Pickering and Capitans China Chung Keng Quee and Chin Seng Yam.

Colonel S. Dunlop was appointed Commissioner in Perak shortly after the commencement of hostilities in November 1875, after the murder of Mr. J. W. W. Birch(James Wheeler Wooodford Birch),the first British Resident of Perak on 2-11-1875 at Pasir Salak. He was appointed Special Commissioner temporarily for Perak affairs or Acting Commissioner Perak. He organised the expedition which captured the Pasir Salak stockades, and was present at their capture. During the December 1875 operations in Perak he was Commissioner to the Forces, and accompanied General Colborne's force up the Perak River and across country to Kinta. The expedition is later called Perak War(1875-1876).
In Sungei Ujong(now Seremban), two prominent Rajas struggled for control of the main river artery. The Linggi River served as the sole outlet to ferry tin and supplies in and out of the town. Revenue came not only from tin trade but also from the large amount of taxes collected, much to the displeasure of the traders and the British colonialists at the neighbouring port of Malacca. The local chieftains namely, the Dato’ Kelana and the Dato’ Shahbandar of Sungai Ujong were at odds with each other on the rights to collect taxes and ownership and control of the mines. The rivalry developed into a state of civil war, when the Malay rivals allies with the Chinese secret societies. From 1871-1873, the development of civil war had adversely affected the coastal shipping, intensify piracy and posed security threat to the Strait Settlement where the secret societies had their headquarters.

1874- Sungei Ujong

By April 1874 Clarke was negotiating with the chiefs of Sungei Ujong, the most important state of Negri Sembilan, where Chinese tin miners were a prey to illegal 'tax collectors'.

It was a commitment which led Clarke, late in 1874, to send a small detachment of troops to Sungai Ujong to protect their man and destroy the power of the Dato' Shahbandar. In November 1874 Captain Samuel Dunlop was sent as Commissioner with the forces dispatched to quell the disturbances in Sungei Ujong. The British sided with the Dato’ Kelana upon invitation and defeated the forces of the Dato’ Bandar who was later sent into exile to Singapore. In a show of gratitude to the British for helping him win the war, the Dato’ Kelana had no choice but to accept a British Resident.

In 1874, Sir A. Clark, the then Governor, acting in British interests, placed British residents in Perak, Selangor, and the small State of Sungei Ujong. These residents were to advise the rulers in matters of revenue and general administration. Sungei Ujong, the third state to accept a British Resident, it is one of the small states which make up the modern Negri Sembilan. British rule was established in Sungai Ujong in September 1874, Captain Walter J. Tatham RA. was appointed Assistant Resident to Sungai Ujong in December 1874.

1875-1884 Inspector General of Police,Strait Settlement 1875

He was appointed as Inspector General of Police, Strait Settlement in 1875, took over from CB Plunket, a former Commissioner of Police, Strait Settlement. Captain Dunlop was the first Inspector General of Police Strait Settlement.

When the Straits Settlements (Singapore, Malacca, Penang) became a Crown Colony in 1867, the role of the police commissioner was expanded to include that of the entire Straits Settlements, with the title changed to that of Inspector-General of Police. This lasted until the Japanese Occupation of Singapore in 1942, before the post was restored as the Commissioner of Police in 1946 with the return of the British and the gradual in statement of local rule.

In 1875 Captain Dunlop became Inspector-General of Police for the whole Colony ; this title had been introduced in 1871 by the Police Force Ordinance(note: Mr Dunman was actually succeeded by former Singapore Police Magistrate BC Plunket, as Commissioner of Police on 18-8-1871, but the title of IGP even had been introduced, but not implemented yet, only in 1875, Colonel Samuel Dunlop become the first IGP, strait settlement).

1877 - The Singapore directory for the Straits Settlements 1877 reported he was the IGP in 1877. He remained in the police until 1884. He was appointed Acting Resident Councillor in Penang (Acting Lieutenant Governor of Penang, acting when Major John Frederick Adolphus McNair retired as Resident Councillor) from 1884-1885 which post he held for a year, and then returned to the police.

1882 - retired from the military force, Royal Artillery as honorary Colonel

1884-1885 Acting Resident Councillor in Penang

Acting Resident Councillor in Penang, awarded CMG in 1884.

He remained in the police until 1884. He was appointed Acting Resident Councillor in Penang, (Acting Lieutenant Governor of Penang) from 1884-1885 which post he held for a year, and then returned to the police. In 1884-1885, Robert Walter Maxwell act as IGP.

1885-1891 Inspector General(2nd time)

He returned to police and continue as Inspector General of Police for 2nd times, until he retired from the police force in 1891, succeed by R W Maxwell (1891-1895). In 1889, he was president of Singapore municipal commission.

No information obtained about his life after his retirement.

1917 - he passed away at 74 Cromwell Avenue, London


Dunlop Road in Penang and Singapore(in Little India, Singapore) were named after him.


He married in 1864, Martha,daughter of Robert Potts of Belfast, Ireland.

The Straits Times, 5 April 1930, Page 11, the death of widow of late Colonel Samuel Dunlop, Martha, on 4th April 1930 at London, age 88 years.

His issue:-

i)Mary Dunlop(1900-1947)at Chester Terrace, Regent's Park, London married to William Paterson Waddell.

Related articles

1. The Straits Times, 11 March 1876, Page 1(about Perak)
2. London Gazette/Corresp: Actions of Perak Expeditionary Force post-murder of Birch,
3. The Perak War,
4. Dunlop Street(Singapore),
5. The Merican clan: a story of courage and destiny; by Ragayah, Ragayah Eusoff, published by Times Books International, 1997. The Merican Clan - A Story of Courage and Destiny which chronicles the achievements of seven generations of Mericans, the progeney of Kader Mydin Merican who first set foot in Penang from India in 1770.

Thursday, September 9, 2010

Who is historically blind?

Recently there are some professor of History telling that young politician and others who are talking about changing of constitution are "historically blind".

I am not an academician, nor a historian, neither a Professor. But an ordinary citizen of a country with 53 years of history after independence from the British. I am trying to understand history in layman's understanding.

What is history? History is the study of the human past. What is the purpose to study history?. To learn form our past mistakes, and avoiding the same mistake in future; leaning from other people's mistakes, preventing the same history or mistake happen again to us. In short, "Do what we did correctly again, Avoid repeating the history of mistake again". To learn from mistakes, to learn from history.

Who are historically blind?. The person who forgot about his ancestry history? The person who forgot about his mother tongue(language history)?, The person forgot about his racial culture(cultural history), The person forgot about the past war crime(military history), The person forgot about the election mood of people(election history), The person who forgot about the founding of the nation(National history), The person who forgot about human right (Social history), The person who forgot about his surname and the clan family(Family history), The person forgot about global changes(Global history); The person forgot about world economy(Economic history); The person forgot about himself(memory lost in his own history).....

Talking about independence, historically a person born in Strait Settlement is citizen of Malaysia by operation of law. The citizenship is automatic under the historical event of independence, operation of law. All people born of the citizen parents, regarding of their racial background, born after the independence are automatically a citizen. Any government officials who demand the citizenship certificate is historically blind. Any person calling them, other than citizen is historically blind, and disrespect to the constitution, which legally grant the citizen right. They are historically blind to Constitution history.

Some history are the past events that will never happen again; some history need to move, and change to make new history. A person blindly abide to an unfair historical Treaty without changes is blind in history. As change in time, the Treaty may no longer apply, as political environment may has changed, historian oppose the change for the sake of history is actually historically blind themselves. Take for an example of historical legal documents on slavery, unfair treaty during Opium War; if these historical contract, agreement or Treaty are to allow to continue today, regardless of its unfairness, against human right, human suffering; what will be the impact to the living people today?. Must we allow it to continue just because it was the historical documents? regardless of its suitability to current environment and fairness to the people. A historical documents that bind the future activities of the people, need to be revise, to change, to adapt to the new current environment. It cannot forever remain as legal document of the past without changes, when it affect living people of today. Unless we are historically blind for changes.

Malaysia was ranked 131st out of 175 countries in the 2009 Reporters Without Borders (RSF) press freedom index, because of its tight controls on print and broadcast media. Tomorrow, the data will become history, must we allow this data remain stagnant as historical data? or should we improve on the performance and make new data and new history?.....Just by merely looking at the data as historical document and doing nothing,blindly believe in the history that we cannot change, is historically blind. New history can be created by people, history is make by people. A new record can be created, a new history can be created.....

Legal restriction to changes and history are two different things...

History is about human activities, is living history of yesterday and today.

Law is about compliance, can be current and historical, which no longer apply anymore, or not practical anymore....

But there are some academician who are blind historically; because they work for the ruling party and only intend to retain history that please the master. That is the pseudo-history. Many history left today are imperial history, history wrote for the King, the ruling party. The actual history is made by the people, the ordinary people; not only the King. Some change the history to consolidate their political agenda; some concealed the history to avoid facing the actual history; some pretend nothing happen in history. These are the historian who are historically blind, they did not write about the actual history, they are false historian or pseudo-historian, and a historically blind historian.

Some history need to be change; some history need to remain unchanged.

A real historian is the one who professionally dare to tell the true, and not blindly based his opinion on some out-dated historical documents, regardless of the human welfare of today. The objective of study history is for the living people today; why study history if it is not beneficial to the living people today?....

New History is made, for the betterment of the welfare of living people....

History, is his story, your story, my story; the living stories....

Tuesday, September 7, 2010

Anson Road & Major General Archibald Edward Harbord Anson

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Anson Road or Jalan Anson(安顺路)

Anson Road(安顺路) is one of the main road in Penang. It connects Burma Road(車水路)with Perak Road(霹靂路). From the Burma Road cross road with Larut Road(拉律路), it goes straight to the T junction with Perak Road. Anson Road was named after Colonel (later Major General) Archibald Edward Harbord Anson, the Lieutenant Governor of Penang from 1867 to 1882, and Acting Governor of the Crown Colony of the Straits Settlements in 1871-1872, 1873,1877, 1879-1880. Anson Road in Singapore was also named after him. When it was created around 1877, Anson Road forms the old town limit at that time.

(Note: Interestingly, during the period when Major John Frederick Adolphus McNair become Acting Lieutenant Governor from 1881 to 1884. Colonel Anson retired officially in 1882. That was the time Seven Streets Precinct was developed by Major McNair, and McNair Street was named after him, near Anson Bridge. Major Samuel Dunlop(1884-1885) succeeded Major McNair, a street was named Dunlop Road, located off Anson Road)

The Chinese called it ann-soon-lor(安顺路),derived from the English name. To the local Chinese, the name of Anson is good name, because Anson, pronounced as An-soon by Chinese,means peace(安), stability with smooth sailing(顺).

(i) Between Burma Road(車水路)and Macalister Road(中路)

From the Burmah Road junction, on the right are two beautiful pre war bungalow, before reaching Westland Road(威斯蘭路). The bungalow owned by Rubber Trade Association of Penang is now used as entertainment outlet Oriental KTV, located in Oriental Club, No.16, Anson Road Penang. HEAH Joo Seang who was born in the late 1890s in Ipoh, Perak. He attended a Chinese school in Ipoh and St Xavier's Institution in Penang, where he passed his Cambridge School Certificate. Heah started his career as a clerk in the Han Tong Company, leaving after a few years to go into business for himself. Through hard work and family business links, he built a fortune in the rubber industry and became one of Malaya's biggest rubber magnates. He was president of the Penang Rubber Trade Association for many terms. After Westland Road is Tenaga office(Wisma TNB), KDU college(no.32), and historical MGS( Methodist Girls' School). Crossing Logan Road(罗眼路) is formerly Chung Ling High School Union with a badminton court, but now the court had been converted to Canon office . Further down is another bungalow before reaching the corner lot with bungalow now used as Ghee Hiang biscuit sale outlet. Logan Road was named after James Richardson Logan, a prominent lawyer in early Penang.
From the left is Volvo car shown room at the corner, the See Hoy Chan building, followed by a bungalow used as entertainment outlet(Club Atlantis), another bungalow used as car park now, and then is the Federal Government building(Bangunan Persekutuan), followed by Penang Taipu Association building(at No.33), used now as an art college. Beside the art college is former Wisma Pen -group building, Penang Lady Chin Woo Athletic Association, Garden Inn hotel(at 41, Anson Road), Dim Sum House(点心之家), furnishing show room, and Pageout car shown room , and you reach Macalister Road cross junction.

(ii) Between Macalister Road(中路)and Perak Road(霹靂路)

From the right is a bungalow with a big compound now used as a bank, cross the small Lim Ew Toon Road(林耀椿路), between Lim Ew Toon Road and Siam Road (暹罗路)is two rows of shophouses, from Siam Road there are row of residential houses until Nirvana Road(尼哇纳路), Bangunan Anson Apartment followed with Penang Buddhist Association(found in 1925), which was once a tourist attraction , the road end at the corner kongfu school to reach Perak Road junction. Interestingly the side streets and smaller street in the residential area are with names which are Buddhist linked, eg. Nirvana Road(丁格尼哇纳), Dharma Road( 达玛路), Deva Pada Road(蒂哇路), and Bodhi Avenue or Lebuhraya Bodhi(菩提街). Former Thomas Cupper, the late Law Teik Hock was staying at 38, Kim Bian Aik Road(金联益街). The late Law Teik Hock played alongside other Malayan badminton greats like Wong Peng Soon, Ong Poh Lim, Chan Kon Leong, Yeoh Teik Chye, Teoh Seng Khoon and his namesake in Ooi Teik Hock back in the 40s and 50s. He is best remembered as the player who inspired Malaya to Thomas Cup victory 61 years ago. His stunning 15-5, 15-0 win over Jorn Skaarup at first singles sparked his team-mates into overdrive as they overran Denmark 8-1 to lift the coveted Cup. Kim Bian Aik Road was named after a old established gold merchant/ Jewellers-Retail business, Kim Bian Aik Co Sdn Bhd (金联益有限公司) , with business at 136, Carnarvon Street, Penang. Beside the shop is NO 124, which is Kim Bian Seng (PG) Co. S/B (金莲盛(槟城)有限公司), may be related.

Lim Ew Toon Road(林耀椿路)is named after Lim Eow Thoon (b1886- d? ), the 2nd son of Lim leng Cheak(林寧綽)(b 1850-d 1901)and Tan Say Siang Neoh (陳西祥), from the powerful Lim family of the Kedah state. His eldest brother, Lim Eow Hong (林耀煌) (b 1878-d?), who was a director of the Straits Echo and Criterion Press, committee member of the Free School, and a Justice of the Peace. Lim Eow Thoon was a member of the Chinese Recreation Club; he was an active sportsman, where he played tennis, football, cricket and billiards. Lim Eow Thoon was also keen patron of the Penang Turf Club. He married Goh Saw Chooi, the second daughter of Goh Ewe Keong of Penang. Lim Eow Thoon’s private residence was at No.278, Penang Road, Penang. Educated at Penang Free School.

From the left is Proton car shown room at the corner, a row of residential houses now converted to commercial shops, a few shops before reaching Seang Tek Road(祥德路). Seang Tek Road is named after Koh Seang Tek( 辜尚德 1838-1874). Crossing the road is the Anson Road Market, between Seang Tek Road and Malacca Street(马六甲路). After Malacca Street is the row of beautiful residential houses to Pahang Road(彭亨路). After Pahang Road to Dunlop Road( 南洛路)is an old government sport club Kelab Sukan Suruhanjaya Pulau Pinang, where government servants used to play tennis there. Over the Dunlop Road(南洛路)is a office complex(Complex Mutiara), after the BP petrol kiosk, further down is Johor Road (柔佛路), where you can see row of hawkers at both end of the road. The Padang Brown followed and Padang Brown food court are between Johor Road and Perak Road , the end of Anson Road at T junction. The place was donated by David Brown family to the people of Penang.
North Malaya Tang's (Nanyang Tong) Association (北马邓氏南阳堂), is at 72-J, Anson Road

Padang Brown Hawker Centre in 1883

Penang Time dated 20-7-1883, Datu Kramat Botanical Garden opened to the public on Thursday evening on 19th July 1883. On the left is Miniature Lake, with a fountain in the centre, erected in the island of artificial rocks. A little distance stand the monument to Mr Brown(source: Straits Times Weekly Issue, 26 July 1883, Page 7). The band from Salvation Army were sometime seen playing at the memorial monument. But now it is a hawker center and not mini botanical garden as initially intended. Mr David Brown(b 1778- d 1825) is the pioneer Penang planter whose family donated Padang Brown to people of Penang.

Major General Archibald Edward Harbord Anson KCMG(b 1826 - d 1925)

Major General Archibald Edward Harbord Anson KCMG, was born on 16 April 1826 with a twin sister at 32, Devonshire Place. He was the son of Major General Sir William Anson, 1st Baronet Anson K.C.B(B 1772 - d 1847).

The Anson Baronetcy, of Hatch Beauchamp in the County of Somerset, is a title in the Baronetage of the United Kingdom. It was created on 30 September 1831 for William Anson. He was the third son of George Anson; his elder brothers were Thomas Anson, 1st Viscount Anson and General Sir George Anson. Sir William was the uncle of Thomas Anson, 1st Earl of Lichfield and Major-General George Anson and the great-nephew of George Anson
His mother Louisa Frances Mary(d 1837), was the only child from the John Dickenson family of Birch Hall. His family comprised three brothers and three sisters. Sir John William Hamilton(b 1816), Marry Louisa(b 1818), William Vernon Dickenson(b 1819 d 1842), Rev George Henry Greville(b 1820), Anne Georgiana Frances( b 1822)and Louisa Frances Maria(b 1826, twin with Archibald Edward Harbord)

(source: Debrett's Peerage of England, Scotland, and Ireland. revised, corrected and continued(1840), by John Debrett)


He was taught Latin grammar by his father before he went to school. In 1834 he went to Rev. Dr. Pincknay School and later in 1837 to Mr. Miller’s school on Woolwich Common.
Sir Archibald Edward Harbord Anson, KCMG, JP Major-Gen, (ret.) RA, was Lieut.-Gov. of Penang 1867-1882 and Acting GOT. Straits Settlements 1871-1872, 1877,1879. ANSON, Major-general Sir Archibald Edward Harbord, RA, CMG (1876), KCMG (1882).— B. 1826 ; entered the royal mil. acad., Woolwich.


1826 - born as a twin with Louisa Frances Mary Anson on 16th Apr, 1826 at 32 Devonshire place, London, England, baptized on 22nd May 1826 at St Mary, St Marylebone, London, England

1834 - In 1834 he went to Rev. Dr. Pincknay School

1837 - Went to Mr. Miller’s school on Woolwich Common. Edinburgh Academy

1841- 1841 census, he was the member of household at 32 Devonshire place, London, England. In 1841, he entered the Royal Military Academy, Woolwich. The Royal Military Academy (RMA) at Woolwich, in south-east London, was a British Army military academy for the training of commissioned officers of the Royal Artillery and Royal Engineers. It later also trained officers of the Royal Corps of Signals and other technical corps. He was presented with sword for exemplary conduct. He was a contemporary of Clarke(Colonel Sir Andrew Clarke R.E., C.B., K.C.M.G ) and Jervois (Sir William Francis Drummond Jervois, GCMG, CB (b1821 –d1897))at Woolwich.

1844 - He was 2nd Lieutenant from 19-6-1844, and served in the Royal Artillery in 1844

1846 - was a 1st Lieutenant on 1-4-1846

1848 - Royal Horse Artillery in 1848; served in the Royal Horse Artillery during the Crimean War, has the Crimean medal and clasp, the Turkish war medal,

1851 - Married on 9 Jan. 1851, with Elizabeth Mary, daughter of the late Richard Bourchier ( d. 23 Sept. 1891) at Limerick, third largest city in the Republic of Ireland.

1852 - promoted to 2nd Captain on 9-7-1852 (source: The new army list and militia list(1858); by H. G. HART, pg 289)

1855 - War Office on Sept 5th, 1855 promoted Second-captain Archibald Edward Harbord Anson of Royal Artillery, to full captain(Pg 319, The United service magazine, Part 3, 1856) , served in the Eastern campaign in 1855, including the siege of Sebastopol.

Mauritius, 1858-1867

British rule in Mauritius(1810–1968)

Mauritius( today officially the Republic of Mauritius)is an island nation off the southeast coast of the African continent in the southwest Indian Ocean, about 900 kilometres (560 mi) east of Madagascar. In the Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) the British set out to gain control of the island. Despite winning the Battle of Grand Port, Napoleon's only naval victory over the British, the French surrendered to a British invasion at Cap Malheureux three months later. They formally surrendered on 3 December 1810, on terms allowing settlers to keep their land and property and to use the French language and law of France in criminal and civil matters. Under British rule, the island's name reverted to the original one. Sir Robert Townsend Farquhar, 1st Baronet (b 1776 -d 1830) was the 1st Governor of Mauritius from 4 December 1810 to 20 May 1823. Mauritius then went on to become independent in 1968. Captain Archibald Edward Harbord Anson was in Mauritius when Sir William Stevenson (1805 - 1863) was the 9th Governor of Mauritius from 20 Sep 1857 - 9 Jan 1863.

1858 – He was Captain of Royal Artillery on 20th Sept 1858,and appointed as Acting Superintendent of Police, Mauritius

1859 - Superintendent of Police, Mauritius in Sept 1859

1860 - The Queen's office at Downing Street announced on 14th Dec 1860 that Captain Archibald Edward Harbord Anson was appointed as Inspector General of Police, Mauritius(source: London Gazette dated 14th Dec 1860). He was Inspector-General of Police in Mauritius from 1860 - 1867.

Madagascar 1862

Note: Madagascar(today Republic of Madagascar, older name Malagasy Republic) is an island nation in the Indian Ocean off the southeastern coast of Africa. In 1817, the Merina ruler and the British governor of Mauritius concluded a treaty abolishing the slave trade, which had been important in Madagascar's economy. In return, the island received British military and financial assistance. British influence remained strong for several decades, during which the Merina court was converted to Presbyterianism, Congregationalism and Anglicanism. France invaded Madagascar in 1883, the British accepted the full formal imposition of a French protectorate in 1890. Madagascar however was never a colony of Britain. Captain Archibald Edward Harbord Anson never served in Madagascar from 1862 to 1867 as some source mentioned. He was still Inspector General of Mauritius during this period.

1862 - Captain Anson was one of the team member of the British Mission to the court of Radama II(1861-1863)of Madagascar, led by General MG Johnstone to represent HM at the coronation of King Radama II on 23th Sept 1862 at Antarananarivo. The team of 6 party include Major General M.G. Johnstone, Acting Governor of Mauritius(10 January 1863 to 21 August 1863); Captain Anson, Inspector General(1860 - 1867); Commodore Dupre, the commander of Imperial Navy of East Cost of Africa, each of these officers are accompanied by a suitable staff, Rev Vincent Willian Ryan, the first Bishop of Mauritius; Lt Samuel Pasfield Oliver(b1838-d1907)and another one name not known, making total of 6 members (Note: eight months after the coronation, King Radama II was assassinated).

1864 - On 21-7-1864, Captain Archibald Edward Harbord Anson was promoted to Brevet Major(Note: Brevet referred to a warrant authorizing a commissioned officer to hold a higher rank temporarily, but usually without receiving the pay of that higher rank except when actually serving in that role. An officer so promoted may be referred to as being brevetted).
1866 - The War Office, Pall Mall on 29th May 1866 announced that Captain and Brevet Major Archibald Edward Harbord Anson, on the seconded list, to be Lieutenant Colonel dated 12th May 1866(London Gazette, May 29th 1866). He was still Inspector General of Police, Mauritius(as reported in THE NEW ARMY LIST, AND MILITIA LIST. NO. XI. 2ND JULY, 1866. by H. G. HART).

Penang 1867-1882

1867-1871: Lt Colonel Archibald Edward Harbord Anson, Lieutenant-Governor of Penang under Governor-general Sir Harry St. George Ord at Singapore.

1867 - The Queen appointed Lt Colonel Archibald Edward Harbord Anson, RA, to be Lieutenant Governor of Prince of Wales Island on Feb 27th, 1867(Bulletins and other state intelligence, Part 1, 1868 Pg 246; THE NEW ARMY LIST; AND MILITIA LIST(1868), by COLONEL H. G. HART`, pg 400 & 401 ). He was the last "Lieutenant Governor of Prince of Wales Island", the title changed to Resident Councilor of Penang. The Government Offices were housed in the Old East India Company Headquarter, which stood on the corner of Downing Street and Beach Street.

(Note: There were report from some Canadian source, that "Anson, Sir Archibald Edward Harbord, Lieutenant- Governor of Prince Edward Island, 1867-70: b. April 16, 1826, in London, England; died in England, Feb. 26, 1925"(source: Encyclopedia Canadiana, Volume 1(1968), by Canadiana Co. pg 170; The Encyclopedia of Canada: Volume 1(1937), by William Stewart Wallace, University associates of Canada, limited,pg 76; The Dictionary of Canadian biography, Volume 1(1945), by William Stewart Wallace, published by The Macmillan company of Canada limited, pg 15). But as per official website of Office of Lieutenant Governor Prince Edward island, the Lieutenant Governors of Prince Edward Island from 1867 to 1870 were (i)Dundas was appointed Governor of Prince Edward Island on 8 June 1859, until 22 October 1868 (ii)Sir William Cleaver Francis Robinson was the fourteenth Governor of Prince Edward Island from 6 October 1870 to 4 July 1873 . (source:

On 1 April 1867 the Straits Settlements were transferred from the control of the Indian Government to that of the Secretary of State for the Colonies in London (Colonial Office).The first Colonial Office Governor of the Straits Settlements was Governor-general Sir Harry St. George Ord at Singapore from March 16, 1867 to November 4, 1873.
Colonel Archibald Edward Harbord Anson left London in May 1867 accompanied by his wife and daughter, and arrived only in June.

1867 Penang Riot - Gang war between Chinese Khian Teik and Ghee Hin societies and involving the Malay Red Flag and White Flag societies, it last for 10 days from August 3rd to 14th, 1867. This was the most depressing event for Colonel Archibald Edward Harbord Anson, who had just arrived few months ago.

1868 - Brevet as Brevet Colonel on 2-11-1868(ref: THE NEW ARMY LIST, AND MILITIA LIST(1869), by Colonel h g hart) Note there were some source said 12th May 1874 e,g, The Colonial Office list for 1924, Colonial Office. Note: He was promted to Lt Colonel on 12th May 1866, and promoted to Colonel on 23rd Dec, 1875, normally a Brevet will promoted to the rank in a short time, from 2-11-1868, it took 7 years, for the date of 12-5-1874 it took only 7 months which is more logical. The Colonial Office's record is more acceptable.
1871- Harry St. George Ord went to England in 1871 and Brevet Colonel Archibald Edward Harbord Anson (1826-1925) became Acting Governor of Singapore. From Mar 4.1871-Mar.22 1872.( source: wikipedia, need confirmation)
(Note: Arthur Nonus Birch, Actg. Lieutenant-Governor of Penang, Malaysia from 1871–1872 for Brevet Colonel Archibald Edward Harbord Anson. Sir George William Robert Campbell, KCMG, Inspector-General from 1866–1891 and Acting Lieutenant-Governor Of Penang from 1872–1873).

1872 - The Third Larut War

1873 - The Fourth Larut War

In August 1873, Archibald Edward Harbord Anson, the last Lieutenant-Governor of Penang, sought to bring about a ceasefire between the two parties and convened a meeting at the beginning of the month attended, apart from Anson, Chung Keng Quee (Hai San), Ho Ghi Sui (Ghee Hin), Foo Tye Sin (pro-Hai San), Ngah Ibrahim (pro-Hai San), Abdullah (pro-Ghee Hin), Tengku Kudin (pro-Abdullah) and a British Naval Captain.
The two sides agreed to keep the peace pending British arbitration with Ngah Ibrahim taking responsibility for the Hai San and Abdullah taking responsibility for the Ghee Hin. Abdullah failed completely in his task in ensuring the Ghee Hin kept the peace that the British were prompted to back Ngah Ibrahim and the Hai San.
On the 3rd of September 1873 outgoing Straits Settlements Governor Sir Harry Ord recognised Ngah Ibrahim, through a proclamation, as the independent (i.e. independent of Perak rule) ruler of Larut. On 5 September he temporarily lifted an arms embargo (imposed since February) just long enough for the Hai San in Larut to receive munitions. In the middle of that month a British vessel got into an entanglement with some Ghee Hin junks and this led to British bombardment and capture of Ghee hin stockades at Matang and Kuala Selinsing.
(source: wikipedia)

Acting as Governor of Strait Settlement at Singapore from 3 November 1873 - 4 November 1873,

1873-1875: Brevet Colonel Archibald Edward Harbord Anson, Lieutenant-Governor of Penang under Governor-general Sir Andrew Clarke at Singapore from November 4, 1873 to May 8, 1875.

1874 - Pangkor Treaty
Sir Archibald Edward Harbord Anson was also involved in Pangkor Treaty. The Pangkor Treaty of 1874 was a treaty signed between the British and the Sultan of Perak. Signed on January 20, 1874, on the island of Pangkor off Perak, the treaty is significant in the history of the Malay states as it legitimized British control of the Malay rulers and paved the way for British imperialism in Malaya.

1875 - promoted to Colonel on 23rd Dec, 1875

1875 - Assassination of JWW Birch
James Wheeler Woodford Birch, commonly known as J. W. W. Birch (3 April 1826 - 2 November 1875) was the first British Resident in Perak, Malaysia. He was appointed to the post on 4 November 1874 as the government adviser to the Sultan of Perak following the signing of the famous Pangkor Treaty on 20 January 1874, which established Perak as a British protectorate state. Birch was killed on 2 November 1875 by a local Malay chief, Dato Maharajalela and his assistant Sepuntum, who speared him to death while he was taking his bath, nearby a river, in Pasir Salak, near today's Teluk Intan (Teluk Anson)

1875-1877: Colonel Archibald Edward Harbord Anson, Lieutenant-Governor of Penang under Governor-general Sir William Jervois at Singapore.

1876 - knighted as CMG(Companion of The Most Distinguished Order of Saint Michael and Saint George) as issuded by Colonial Office, Downing Street, dated 26th May, 1876( The Edinburgh Gazette dated 30-5-1876)

1877 - Colonel Archibald Edward Harbord Anson, 1st time acting as Sir William FD Jervois(who had been appointed as Governor of South Australia on 29th June 1877) as Governors for Crown Colony of the Straits Settlements at Penang from April 3, 1877 to August 1877.

1877-1879: Colonel Archibald Edward Harbord Anson, Lieutenant-Governor of Penang under Sir William Cleaver Francis Robinson at Singapore(who took office from August 1877 to 10th Feb 1879).

The Old Town Hall was the oldest Municipal Building in Penang and its foundation was first laid on 1st January 1879 by Lt. Governor Sir Archibald Edward Harbord Anson.
10 Feb 1879 - 6 May 1880, Colonel Archibald Edward Harbord Anson, 2nd time acting as Governors for Strait Settlement. Sir William Cleaver Francis Robinson, was leaving, and pending the arrival of Sir Frederick Weld.
27TH August 1879 - War office , Pall Mall announced that Colonel Archibald Edward Harbord Anson, CMG,of Royal Artillery, retires with honorary rank of Major General date 27TH August 1879 (London Gazette, dated 26th August 1879).

1879-1880: Major General(rtd)Archibald Edward Harbord Anson was Acting Governor of the Crown Colony of the Straits Settlements at Penang from February 10, 1879 to May 16, 1880.

1880-1881: Major General Archibald Edward Harbord Anson, Lieutenant-Governor of Penang under Sir Frederick Weld at Singapore.

1881-1882: Major John Frederick Adolphus McNair, was Actg.Lieutenant-Governor of Penang (1881 -1884) for Major General Archibald Edward Harbord Anson. This means that Major General Archibald Edward Harbord Anson was on leave from 1881 to 1882?
1882 – Teluk Anson (Anson Bay), was named after Major-General Sir Archibald Edward Harbord Anson in honour of the last Lieutenant-Governor of Penang, who drew the plan of the modern township in 1882.

1882 – He retired, was knighted higher as Knight Commander (KCMG)with the title Sir.

1906 - Sir Archibald m. 2ndly, 15 May 1906, Isabelle Jane (who d. 11 May 1923), daughter of the late Robert Armistead, of Dunscar, Lancashire.
He was a JP at Sussex, England

1920 - He published his reminiscences under the title "About others and myself" (London, 1920). In his memoirs “About Others and Myself.” he describes the feeling of depression upon his appointment as Penang’s Resident Councillor.

1925 - Died on 26-2-1925, at the age of 99 years.


GENERAL Sir William Anson, 1st Bart., K.C.B., b. 13 Aug. 1772, younger brother of the 1st Viscount Anson, and uncle of Thomas William, 1st Earl of Lichfield (see that title), entered the army, and acquired considerable distinction in the Peninsular war. He was created a baronet 30 Sept. 1831. Sir William died on 14 Jan. 1847. He married 26 Jan. 1815, Louisa Frances Mary, only child of John Dickenson, by Mary his wife, only child of Charles Hamilton, son and heir of Lord Archibald Hamilton, 7th son of William, 3rd Duke of Hamilton, and by her (who d. 25 July 1837) had the issues:-

1. JOHN WILLIAM HAMILTON (Sir), 2nd bart; born on 26th Dec 1816,baptized at St Mary, St Marylebone, London, England on 29th Jan 1817. Sir William Anson was succeeded by his son,Sir John William Hamilton Anson, 2nd Bart., he married on 27 July 1842, Elizabeth Catherine(who d. 3 July, 1903), dau. of Major-Gen. Sir Denis Pack, K.C.B., by his wife, the Lady Elizabeth Beresford, youngest dau. of the 1st Marquess of Waterford.
2. Mary Louisa Anson, born on 5th Jan 1818, London, England; baptized at St Mary, St Marylebone, London, England on 26th Jan 1818; died in 1856. Married Rev. Matthew Thomas Farrer(1816 - 1889)
3. William Vernon Dickenson, Royal Navy, b. 10 Feb. 1819; baptized at St Mary, St Marylebone, London, England on 10th Mar 1819; d. 1842 in service.
4. George Henry Greville (Ven.), M.A., rector of Birch, archdeacon of Manchester, hon. canon of the Cathedral, b. 19 July 1820; baptized at St Mary, St Marylebone, London, England on 9th Aug 1820; m. 27 May 1848, Augusta Agnes, eldest dau. of the Very Rev. Walter F. Hook, D.D., dean of Chichester, and died without issue on 8 Feb. 1898.
5. Louisa Frances Mary Anson, born as twin with ARCHIBALD EDWARD HARBORD at London, England on 16th Apr 1826; baptized at St Mary, St Marylebone, London, England on 22nd May 1826; died unmarried on 2 Dec. 1934.
6. ARCHIBALD EDWARD HARBORD, (Sir) K.C.M.G. (1882), major-gen. R.A (retired), J.P. Sussex inspector-gen. of police, Mauritius, 1858-67, lieut.-governor Penang, 1867-82, administrator of Government Straits Settlements, 1871-2, 1877, and 1879, served in Crimea 1855, and in Malay Peninsula 1875-6, b. 16 April, 1826; baptized at St Mary, St Marylebone, London, England on 22nd May 1826; married 1st, 9 Jan. 1851, Elizabeth Mary, dau. of the late Richard Bourchier and by her (who d. 23 Sept. 1891) had issue:-

1. Archibald John George, b. 4 Nov. 1851; m. 29 April 1916, Gwendolene, dau of the late Rev. Jonathan Havard-Jones, rector of Alpheton, and widow of Francis Charles John Du Cane (son of late Maj. Francis Du Cane, R.E.), and d. 11 Jan. 1929. His widow m. 3rdly, Rev. Henry Patrick Dawson, Chaplain, R.N. (ret.).
2. John William Henry, capt. Royal Irish Rifles, b. 5 Nov. 1856; m. 30 Jan. 1883, Frances Anne, dau. of Rev. Thomas Hartshorne Hardinge, rector of Ashley, co. Stafford, and widow of R. Leigh, of Lynwood, St. Leonards, and died on 4 April 1889, without issue.

Sir Archibald married 2nd time on 15 May 1906, Isabelle Jane (who d. 11 May 1923),daughter of the late Robert Armistead, of Dunscar, Lancashire,and d. 26 Feb. 1925. Their issues:-

1. Mary Louisa, m. 8 July 1848, Rev. Matthew Thomas Farrer, of Ingleborough, and d. 15 Nov. 1856, leaving issue. He d. 14 July 1889 (see Landed Gentry).
2. Anne Georgiana Frances, m. 19 Feb. 1846, Rev. William Thornton, of Brockhall, Wheedon, Northamptonshire, who d. 20 May, 1881, leaving issue.
3. Louisa Frances Maria, m. 16 April 1857, Major Francis Du Cane, R.E., who d. 4 Oct. 1880, leaving issue. She d. 14 Jan. 1904.

(source: Burke's Peerage, 1938 Coronation Edition, pp.130-131,


1. There is a street in both Penang and Singapore named after him. Anson road was named after Sir Archibald Anson who served as Lieutenant-Governor of Penang. He was assigned the task of administering the Straits Settlement during the interim periods between governors (Sir Henry George 2nd, Sir William Jervois and Sir Frederick Weld) in the 1870s. He retired in 1882.

2. Anson Bridge between Beach Street and Bridge Street(now Jalan CY Choy)over the Prangin River, later Prangin Canal, and now Prangin Ditch. Anson Bridge was built across the Prangin Canal, and named after Archibald Anson the then Lieutenant-Governor of Penang, 1880-1881.

3. The town of Teluk Anson or Anson Bay was named after Major-General Sir Archibald Edward Harbord Anson as the town was planned by him in 1882. The name however has changed to Teluk Intan. The Chinese called it ann-soon(安顺), still with the English name Anson, because Anson, pronounced as An-soon by Chinese , is a good name with meaning of peace(安) , stability with smooth sailing(顺). It is a good name for a port.
Teluk Intan, is a town located in the state of Perak in Malaysia. It is the largest town in Hilir Perak district and third largest town in the state of Perak with an estimated population of around 110,000.
In the early days, the town was known as Teluk Mak Intan, after a female Mandailing trader. It was here that the Perak rulers held court from 1528 until Kuala Kangsar became the royal town in 1877. It was the “heartland of the Perak Kingdom”. Historically, it was the port for Kinta from the 1870s to 1880s and up to the early 20th Century, with jetties at Durian Sebatang and Batak Rabit. At the time, it may be a small costal trading town.
Archibald Edward Harbord Anson, the last Lieutenant Governor of Penang, drew the plan of the town in 1882, had named it Teluk Anson after himself. It was once the largest of Malaya’s minor ports, with regular steamer services to Penang and Singapore. In 1903, Teluk Anson was known as “our great Southern Port”. Its decline came after the expansion of the railway line north and south of Tapah Road in 1909. The fourth railway track in Malaya was built connecting Tapah and Teluk Intan,
In 1982 during the centenary of the town's establishment, the name was changed again to Teluk Intan (Diamond Bay) by the Sultan of Perak. The town still has a number of colonial buildings and Chinese shophouses . The local Chinese speak a Hockkien similary to Penang Hockkien, different from the surrounding area where Foochow or Cantonese dialects are spoken.

4. Taman Anson in Bidor, Perak.

Related articles

1. Remains, historical and literary, connected with the palatine counties of Lancaster and Chester, Volume 47(1859), Chetham Society.(This book Pg 152 to Pg 155, mentioned about Rev George Henry Greville Anson).
2. Debrett's complete peerage of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland(1838),by William Courthope, Printed for J.G. & F. Rivington, 1838( Pg 202 to 204, on Thomas William Anson, The Earl of Lichfield).
3. The Gentleman's magazine, Volume 182(1847), F. Jefferies, Pg 423-424(on the background of General Sir William Anson)
4. The Royal Military Academy, Woolwich (1741-1939),
5. Anson Road(2003), by Thulaja, Naidu Ratnala, National Library Board Singapore,
6. Teluk Intan,
7. My earlier blog on Sunday, July 5, 2009, David Brown(1778- 1825)- Pioneer Nutmeg Planter in Penang

Wednesday, September 1, 2010

Penang Missionary Schools and their dilemma

Missionary Schools was once the best English school tradition left from colonial era; the schools had produced many leaders in the country, and also for other countries, especially Singapore. There are many alumni of the missionary schools all over the world, from Penang. We have many Queen scholars from the schools, former Prime Ministers and business leaders, doctors and lawyers, economist, academician, and people in police and military forces......their contribution in nation building is enormous. They are the important part of the education system in Malaysia.

* Penang Free School founded by Rev. Sparke Hutchings in 1816, is the first and oldest English School in South East Asia. Rev. Sparke Hutchings was the Resident Chaplain of Prince of Wales Island, from the Church of England, the Mother Church of the worldwide Anglican Communion (

* The St Xavier's Institution established in 1852, is the first school established in Malaysia to be administered and fully owned by the Institute of the Brothers of the Christian Schools, also known as the De La Salle Brothers or the De La Salle Christian Brothers, a Roman Catholic religious teaching order founded by French Priest Saint Jean-Baptiste de La Salle(

* Convent Light Street or the Convent of the Holy Infant Jesus, a girls' school established by a French Sisters' Mission in 1852, is the oldest girls' school in South East Asia. Sisters of the Infant Jesus, previously also referred to as Sisters of the Holy Infant Jesus or Les Dames de Saint-Maur, is a Roman Catholic Missionary order. It was founded in 1666 by Father Nicolas Barré, a Minim priest, for the gratuitous instruction of poor girls. Sisters of the Holy Infant Jesus were among the pioneer missionaries in Malaya and Japan. The Sisters arrived in Malaya as it then was in 1852 – the first mission on foreign soil since the Founding of the Institute in 1666. The first School as well as an Orphanage was in Penang(source: In October 1852, four French nuns arrived in Penang after having travelled overland from their native country in caravans. Reverend Mother Mathilde Raclot, leader of this group, was to become a key personality in the early history of the Convent of the Holy Infant Jesus on Victoria Street, Singapore in 1854(source: wikipedia)

* The St George's Girls' School, nowadays known as SMK (Perempuan) St George, is a school for girls founded by Anglican missionaries, similar to the Penang Free School. St George's Girls' School traces its history to informal classes in 1884, conducted by Mrs Biggs, wife of Reverend L. Courtier Biggs, Colonial Chaplain and the Anglican missionary in Penang.

* ACS(Anglo Chinese School) or now MBS(Methodist Boy's School), Penang was opened by Rev. B. H. Balderston from Methodist Mission on 28th May 1891 at Carnarvon St, Penang.

* ACGS(The Anglo-Chinese Girls School), now Methodist Girl's School, traces its history back to Oct 1892, when Mrs Amelia Young(later Mrs G.F. Pykett)from Methodist Mission, began conducting classes for girls in Northam Road.

Mission schools or Missionary Schools?

Some said the schools started by missionaries should called Missionary School, not Mission school. You can call it Christian School. A Christian school is a school run on Christian principles or by a Christian organization.

A missionary is a member of a religious group sent into an area to carry on ministries of the word, such as evangelism and literacy, or ministries of service, such as education, social justice, health care and economic development. The word "mission" originates from 1598 when the Jesuits sent members abroad, derived from the Latin missionem (nom. missio), meaning "act of sending" or mittere, meaning "to send". In Christian cultures the term is most commonly used for Christian missions, but it applies equally to any creed or ideology. Missionary school means missionary's school, schools started and owned by a mission or missionary, but the teachers there may be missionary or non-missionary civil servants, or it may be all government civil servants.

Mission is a religious mission or mission station, a location for missionary work e.g. mission field, mission of education, hospital, social work etc. A place for missionary work. Mission school is the school where the missionary teachers worked. That should be the right word, a name or type of schools, where the missionary teachers worked or where the schools were started by Christian missionary, and the missionary work there. The schools where the nun, the Catholic brother/father, or other missionaries teach at the schools. All Convent schools are mission schools where the nuns worked as teachers in the schools. St Xavier's Institution is a mission school, but gradually less Catholic brothers are teaching there.

Mission schools are few now; most of them are now missionary schools.

The Missionary Schools

Missionary schools are schools built by Christian missionaries. Christian missionary activities often involve sending individuals and groups (called "missionaries"), to foreign countries and to places in their own homeland. This has frequently involved not only evangelization (in order to expand Christianity through the conversion of new members), but also humanitarian work, especially among the poor and disadvantaged. Missionaries have the authority to preach the Christian faith (and sometimes to administer sacraments), and provide humanitarian work to improve economic development, literacy, education, health care and orphanages. Christian doctrines (such as the "Doctrine of Love" professed by many missions) permit the provision of aid without requiring religious conversion.(source: wikipedia)

Missionaries of various Christian denominations, such as the Roman Catholic Josephian order and the Lasallian Brothers, Anglican, Methodist, Presbyterian and Brethren churches, started a series of mission schools in Malaysia. It provided primary and secondary education in the English language. Most of these were single-sex schools. Although nowadays they had fully assimilated into the Malay-medium national school system and most admit students regardless of gender and background (some single-sex schools remain), many of the schools still bear their original names today, such as the ones with the names of various saints or words such as “Katholik”, “Convent”, “Advent” and “Methodist”.

Mission schools though started by Christian missionaries, strove to provide education for all the people in the country regardless of race, religion, creed and social class or gender. Mission schools are popular for providing quality education, coupled with education for religious, moral and spiritual values. These values helped to build up generations of Malaysians that are tolerant with a strong spirit of service to society and the nation.

In the early years of independence, existing Chinese, Tamil and mission schools accepted government funding and were allowed to retain their medium of instructions on the condition that they adopt the national curriculum.

In the 1970s, in accordance to the national language policy, the government began to change English-medium primary and secondary national-type schools into Malay-medium national schools. The language change was made gradually starting from the first year in primary school, then the second year in the following year and so on. The change was completed by the end of 1982. From 1982, all missionary schools become Malay medium schools.

Now 410 schools remain throughout the country with 289 primary schools and 121 secondary schools. These schools, each with their different heritage, have contributed much to the building of Malaysia. In Penang, most of the missionary schools are by Anglican, Methodist, Roman Catholic, Presbyterian and Brethren churches.

The missionary schools in Penang are:-

1. Methodist Boys' School or Sekolah Menengah Laki-Laki Methodist(established in 1891)
2. Methodist Girls' School or Sekolah Menengah Perampuan Methodist
3. St Mark, Butterworth or Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan St. Mark, Butterworth
4. Assumption
5. St Xavier's Institution
6. St Xavier's Primary School or Sekolah Kebangsaan St. Xavier Cawangan
7. Convent Light Street or Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Convent Light Street
8. Convent Pulau Tikus or Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Convent Pulau Tikue
9. Convent Green Lane or Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Convent Green Lane
10. Convent Butterworth or Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Convent Butterworth
11.Convent Dato Kramat or Sekolah Menengah Jenis Kebangsaan Convent Datuk Keramat (槟城修道院国民型中学)
12. Convent Bukit Mertajam or Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Convent Bukit Mertajam
13. Sekolah Menengah Jenis Kebangsaan Sacred Heart( 圣心国民型中学),
14. St George or Sekolah Kebangsaan Saint George, Balik Pulau
15. Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Methodist Nibong Tebal
16. Sekolah Kebangsaan Pykett Methodist
17. Sekolah Rendah Jenis Kebangsaan (Cina) Heng Ee
18. Heng Ee High School(恒毅国民型中学)
19. Sekolah Kebangsaan St. Xavier, Pulau Tikus

(note: if any missing names, please inform)

However there were more missionary schools than that, some have been taken over by colonial government under statutory power,which is now government school, like Penang Free School, founded in 1816 by Sparke Hutchings, an Anglican chaplain. Schools like St George's Girls' School, nowadays known as SMK (Perempuan) St George, is a school for girls founded by Anglican missionaries in 1886, are now government public schools. Some schools have been involved by the missionary in fund raising or donation of land, or indirectly by the church or church members e.g. SRJK(C) Shang Wu, Sekolah Rendah Jenis Kebangsaan (Cina) Union,Union High School( founded 1928 by some charitable Christian believers)etc

Many of the missionary schools left today are convent schools. Convent is an association of religious persons secluded from the world; an assembly or meeting; a body of monks, friars, or nuns; a company of twelve (or with a Superior, thirteen); an assemblage or gathering of people. In simplicity, convent is the building where nun lived(女修道院). Convent school is the school run by nuns(女修道院办的学校). In the Roman Catholic tradition, concern for female education has expressed itself in the foundation of religious orders, with ministries addressing the area. These include the Ursulines (1535) and the Religious of the Sacred Heart of Mary (1849). A convent education is an education for girls by nuns, within a convent building. This was already being practiced in England before 1275, and later become more popular in France during the seventeenth century, and thereafter spread worldwide. Contemporary convent schools are not restricted to Catholic pupils. Students in contemporary convent education may be boys (particularly in India).

In his paper 'Christian Schools in Malaysia' released in 1986, (the late) David Boler outlined three distinct phases through which the mission schools have passed

The Phases of Mission Schools:-

1. Pre Merdeka Era( pre 1957)
The first phase, which Boler called the 'Pre-Merdeka Era', was when the Christian missionaries who established the schools also administered them. The Christian mission are fully involved in the schools, the political support from the colonist government, and nuns and missionary teachers are teaching in the schools. The medium of instruction was English, the standard of English was the best in the region. There are students from the schools who become English teachers in the region. This was the golden era of missionary schools. Many of the past leaders in Malaysia are from the period.

2. Unified Teaching Service(1957-1971)
Next, came the 'Unified Teaching Service' which was implemented following the Razak Report (KPM, 1956). Here, each school was responsible for selecting its own teachers through its Board of Governors. Many schools begin to provide residential accommodation for the students from the villages. The medium of instruction was English. This is the period of political adaptation to national policies and changes, a transition period.

3. Post Aziz Commission Era(Post 1971)
The third phase came with the recommendations made by the Aziz Commission (1971) where teachers would now become government servants and their appointment and deployment determined by the Teachers' Service Commission. After the national language policy in 1970, Malay language gradually replaced English as medium of instruction. It become the only medium of instruction in 1982. The NEP or New Economic Policy implemented in the period. The quality of the schools have declined.

Boler's analysis helps us understand better how the Christian ethos and traditions in mission schools have gradually eroded over the years. The loss of this original sense of identity of the mission schools has been so keenly felt that many of the mission authorities have begun rethinking the future of mission schools (Malaysian Lasallian Education Council, 2007).

Penang state government & Missionary schools

January 09, 2010 Uploaded by 5xmom

Chief Minister Lim Guan Eng met with the headmasters and Parents-Teachers Association representative from 19 missionary schools in Penang. Some of the schools who were present at Komtar Level 5 Auditorium are Methodist Boys School, Methodist Girls School, St. Xavier Institution and primary schools, Convent Schools, Assumption and St. Marks

The purpose of the meeting with CM Lim Guan Eng, YB Chong Eng, YB Law Choo Kiang and committee members of the approving board is to brief the school heads on the application of fundings from the state government.

In 2009, a total of RM4.5 million was disbursed to the school for urgent repair works and also upgrading of the schools. In 2010, the State will allocate RM11.3 M to 124 schools in Penang

However, a few of the headmasters asked if they can also apply for funds to purchase computers, provide teachers training and etc. CM Lim said the state government will carry out proper auditing and hence, the funds are only for physical works such as school repairs and upgrading.

He was shocked to hear that the schools are paying some of the utilities bills which cost thousands of ringgit per month because these schools are charged the same rate as corporate sector. It was also revealed that teachers training allocation was drastically slashed in 2010.

CM Lim offered to help the schools to bring the appeal to the highest authorities to reduce the sewage charges. If need be, he said he will even bring it up in Parliament. He also assured the headmasters that the State Government will be able to provide tailor-made training for teachers as USM and other sources in Penang are able to provide skills training.

The Dilemma

The Missionary schools are facing dilemma, missionary schools now, being a national high schools/primary schools (Sekolah Kebangsaan/Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan), uses Malay as their medium of teaching instead of English, teachers in schools are civil servants, and the recent trends and reports of De-Cristianising by some civil servant teacher appointed as Headmaster. The worry that the identity of the missionary schools are fading. Some of the teachers did not understand the historical background of Missionary schools, and treated the schools like a normal public schools. The historical heritage status of the school cannot be removed, some of the school buildings are heritage buildings, and any ignorant civil servant will damage the historical value. There are documents, magazines, photos and manuscripts in the school premise or library are national heritage. Any administrator of the missionary schools should understand the history of missionary school, otherwise the preservation of the historical materials will be adversely affected.

Being a government public schools,the financial and government support of missionary schools is crucial. Are they having the same support as other non-missionary government schools?. The charging of corporate rate to utility bills of the missionary schools is not help to the school, but added financial burden to the school. Is the Missionary School private enterprise school or government school, that need clarification by the authority.... if not why the double standard of charging corporate rate for utility?(refer to dialogue with Chief Minister).

For the alumni and parents of the missionary schools, the quality of the education is the most crucial for them. Otherwise the reputation of the schools and the future student enrollment will be affected. To the Christian, and the mission that establish and support the school, to maintain the identity of the missionary school, in spirit and in its reputation as schools that provide quality education. The fate of the school chapel, Bible class, and the school society of Christian students(or Christian study) are the main concern.

In conclusion, the need to maintain the identity of missionary school, as its tradition and founding as missionary school.....

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