Friday, October 28, 2011

Lebuh Tek Soon (Tek Soon Lane)

abandoned pre-war shophouses, with some in ruins and overgrown with shrubs. This is right in the middle of the city. In actual fact this area has been ear-marked for re-development. Technically this is on Lebuh Tek Soon (Tek Soon Lane), ending at Jalan Maxwell (Maxwell Road), just south of the Prangin Canal and the former Prangin Market. Looks like this area has been forgotten.

Sunday, October 9, 2011

Huanghuakang Uprising(黄花岗起义) & Luo Zhong Huo(罗仲霍)

That day, when I stand at the entrance of Huanghua Gang Commemoration Park (黄花岗公园), located at 79, Xianlie Zhonglu, Guangzhou(广州市先烈中路79号). That was the time when Guangzhou was having Asian Games in 2010. My heart was filled with excitement, this is the place that I longed to come since my primary school day, when I read about the history of Huanghuakang Uprising. The first step that I walked into the park, the parallel lines of flowers plots that greeted me, at the end of the flower plots is the cemetery of the 72 martyrs. Actually is more than 72. The uprising was planned in Penang, and there were some Penang people who died in the uprising. The uprising in the place far from Penang, which was closely connected to the island, and it was the event that was later changed the whole of China and Asia...

Many have forgotten the Huanghuakang Uprising, Malayan school history textbook no longer teach the history, even the Chinese younger generation may not remember the event. This is how the history may be lost in time....

I told my daughter of what had happen in 1911, how a man and many men and women, and some from Penang, was involved in the uprising. She seems not to understand the significance of the event. To her the heroes who died in the event is not as important as the popular idols in Korean movies or Hollywood movies. The history has seem to lost their battle with popular culture in the internet era. But at least she listen and try to understand. May be to her,they have never experience the bloody political historical event, they lived in the peaceful era. They may not understand the era, it was too far for them, 100 years least she take time to search for the names of the people and institution who contribute financially or with their own life....

I was born during the colonial days, WW2 was during my parent's time, and my dear grandmother used to talk about the Xinhai Revolution(辛亥革命), she was born during the era. I read about the history, and Dr Sun Yat-sen was having Penang Conference at the place walking distance from where I was born....I can feel the tempo of the historical event.....and the first place I want to visit in Guangzhou is Huanghua Gang Commemoration Park (黄花岗公园)...and I remember the first time in Kuala Lumpur during my school day hitchhike, when we visited National Monument in Lake Garden. It was the same feeling.....Suddenly it become so familiar and close to heart...

Huanghuakang Uprising(黄花岗起义)

Yellow Flower Mound revolt (黃花岡之役, 黄花岗起义) or (黃花崗起義/黄花岗起义) also known as the Second Guangzhou uprising (辛亥廣州起義/辛亥广州起义) is an uprising led by Zhao Shen(趙聲, 1881-1911) and Huang Xing(黃興, 1876-1916) and his fellow revolutionaries against the Qing Dynasty in Guangzhou.

On 13 November 1910, Sun Yat-sen, along with several leading figures of the Tongmenhui—such as Zhao Shen, Huang Hsing, Hu Hanmin, and Deng Zeru, gathered for a conference at Penang in British Malaya. Having experienced countless failures in previous uprisings, they plotted a decisive battle in Guangzhou against the Qing Government.

On 27 April, Zhao Shen and Huang Hsing commenced the uprising in Guangzhou.

More than 130 people were led by Huang Xiang to attack the government offices for one day and a night. Lin Juemin(林覺民), Yu Peilun, Lin Shishuang and many other heroes gave their lives in the process. Revolutionaries fought fiercely with the Qing Army in the streets, but the rebels were eventually outnumbered and lost. Lin Juemin(林覺民), Yu Peilun, Lin Shishuang and many other heroes gave their lives in the process.


廣東:徐佩旒,徐禮明,徐日培,徐廣滔,徐臨端,徐茂燎,徐松根,徐滿凌,徐昭良,徐培添,徐保生,徐廉輝,徐容九,徐進照,徐褶成,徐應安,李炳輝,李 晚,李文楷,李文甫,李雁南,陳春,陳潮,陳文褒,羅仲霍,羅坤,龐雄,周華,游壽,江繼復,郭繼枚,勞培,杜鳳書,余東雄,馬侶,黃鶴鳴,饒輔廷,張學 銓,周增,林修明;





華僑:黃花崗諸位烈士,有近卅人是新加坡、馬來西亞華僑。其中,羅仲霍、周華、李雁南和陳文褒來自馬來西亞檳城。 李炳煇、郭繼枚、余東雄來自馬來西亞霹靂州。習慣只寫上祖籍,分入廣東、福建。

The remains of 72 rebels were later collected by members of Tongmenhui and interred together at Huanghuagang or Yellow flower Hill(黃花岡). He was Pan Dawei(潘达微), a member of the Hongmenhui or Alliance Society, who risked his life to bury 72 of the martyrs at Huanghuagang in the Tomb of 72 Martyrs in Guangzhou. The martyrs were commemorated as the "72 martyrs". But actually it was more that 72, it reported 86 martyrs, but historically it is still popularly called 72 martyrs. Tomb of 72 Martyrs or Mausoleum of the 72 Martyrs in Guangzhou was built in 1918. The monument was to pay homage to the martyrs who died in the Huanghuakang Uprising, Guangzhou mutiny on April 27, 1911 against the Qing dynasty.

Dr Sun Yat sen, the Father of China, reported that the event is as important as Wuchang Uprising.


Some historians believe that the uprising was a direct cause of the Wuchang uprising(武昌起義), which eventually led to the Xinhai Revolution(辛亥革命) and the founding of the Republic of China.

The "72 martyrs" included 30 from British Malaya, four of them was reported to be from Penang, Luo Zhong Huo(罗仲霍,1881-1911)、Zhou Hua(周华, ?-1911)、Li Yannan(李雁南, 1880-1911) and Chen Wen-bao(陳文褒, 1880-1911). Other than Luo, the background of the others were not clear.

Luo Zhong Huo(罗仲霍,1881-1911)

Luo Zhong Huo's ancestral home was from Lianfengcun(联丰村), Baihuazhen(白花镇), Huidongg(惠东县), Huizhou(惠州市), Guangdong广东省, China. His uncle was a general in Taiping Rebellion. He was a teacher in the village, but later left the village to seek for job in Annam and various towns in Nanyang. (罗仲霍名璋,号则君,惠东白花镇联丰村人。其堂叔祖罗添,是太平天国农民起义军的将领.早年在家乡授徒为业。后赴安南(今越南)及南洋各埠读书、寻找职业). He left China in 1901.

1903 to 1907
He arrived in Penang in 1903, enrolled into Chong Hwa School(中华学堂)school, and at at the mean time also wrote for the local newspaper to meet his living expenses. He later continued school at the teacher training school. Luo was reported graduated from Penang Teacher Training School(槟榔屿师范学堂) in 1906. Chong Hwa School(中华学堂) was formed in 1904, the first modern Chinese school in Penang, it was later changed to Chung Hwa Confucian School. Now it is known as Chung Hwa Confucian High School (孔圣庙中华中学). On 3-10-1906, a teacher training school was also set up, affiliated to Chung Hwa School(胡子春又倡议于中华学堂附设开办马来亚第一间师范传习所). This was the first teacher training school in Malaya. The training was to train primary school teachers within duration of 6 months. Luo must be one of the pioneer graduates from this teacher training school in 1906, probably graduated in April 1907. The teacher training school sadly was only last for one term.

 Note: 陳育崧的考證也顯示,檳榔嶼的師範傳習所,並非是康有為或是兩廣總督岑春(火*宣)特派員創辦,依據他從光緒卅年代理新加坡總領事張弼士到中華的視察記載,傳習所為中華學校所附設。 可惜的是她只辦一期,學生一二十人、6個月畢業,講師是閩中一位舉人。

It was during the time when reformist Kang Youwei(康有为, 1858-1927)was campaigning to modernize China now known as the Hundred Days' Reform(百日維新,戊戌變法) with his famed student, Liang Qichao(梁启超/梁啟超), they were important participants in a opening new modern Chinese schools(新式华校), who was also in Singapore and Penang during the period. He was also the President of Confucius School(孔教会). The schools were popularly named Zhong Hua School(中华学堂)or Confucius School(尊孔学堂). If you are lucky you can find a Chinese calligraphy wrote by Kang Youwei carved on the rock in Kek lok Si temple, he wrote" Forget not my motherland" on 29-6-1903.

The reformist movement was also the political rival of Tongmenhui, they were having political debate in the Chinese newspapers set up in oversea or nanyang. Luo was a Chinese scholar, he also wrote for the local Chinese newspaper to promote modern new ideas. Both political camps had their respective supporters in Nanyang.

May 1907-1908
He also helped in the donation campaign to set up Confucian School(尊孔学堂)in 1906, now Confucian Private Secondary School(尊孔独立中学)in Kuala Lumpur. The school opened on 24-5-1907. It was reported that he was the first principal(旋筹办吉隆尊孔学堂自任校长). But from the history of the school reported in their school official website, the first principal was Lip Siau Yoon (聂少云) from May 1907 to February 1908, Luo Zhong Huo(罗仲霍) may be the pioneer teacher or provincial principal before the school officially opened in 1907. He was freshly graduated from the teacher training school in April 1907, may not be appropriate to be the principal at that time.

Luo was a teacher of Chong Hua School(崇华学堂)in 1908,which was located at Pingzhang Huiguan or Ping Zheng Association(平章会馆), Pitt Street; now known as Chinese Town Hall or DEWAN PERHIMPUNAN CINA PULAU PINANG(槟州华人大会堂). The school was opened on 4-4-1908, and changed its name to Shih Chung School, later moved to Love Lane and now know as SJK(C) Shih Chung Cawangan P. Pinang(时中学校). He was the pioneer teacher in the school.

He later become the principal of Zhong Hua School(中华学堂) in Medan(棉兰市), Dutch East Indies, now Indonesia(荷属火水山中华学堂充校长),and also the editor for the local newspaper(该埠报馆主笔). The school was Dun Ben School(敦本学校), the first Chinese school in Medan, formed by President of Chinese Chamber of Commerce(中华商会), Lu Bowen(卢博文)in 1909. But due to initial financial constraint, it need the support of Zhang Rong Xuan(张耀轩), and the name was changed to Zhong Hua Dun Ben School(中华敦本学校), when the sponsorship withdrawn in 1917, it changed to Zhong Hua School(中华学堂). The first principal was Luo Zhong Huo(罗仲霍). Lu Bowen was the President of Tongmenhui in Medan, and Luo was already a member while in Penang in 1906.

Tongmenhui member

When Dr Sun Yat sen speak in Penang in 1906, Luo joined Tongmenhui and begin active political activities in Malaya, being a good orators, he was able to attract many members. One of them was a pastor,Li Bing Hui(李炳辉,1890-1911) and his god brothers Yu Dong Xiong(余东雄, 1893-1911) and Guo Ji Mei (郭继枚, 1892-1911)from Perak. Li was a former student of ACS, Ipoh, he later attended a Christian college in Malacca to be a christian pastor(it cannot be The Anglo Chinese College as it had moved to Hong Kong in 1843), he joined Singapore Presbyterian Church(新加坡英国长老会教堂). Luo met him in Singapore, and invited him to join Tongmenhui.

Luo also met Li Bing Hui's former teacher, Hu Hanmin(胡汉民), now Dr Sun's follower, and right hand man, in Penang.

1911 Hong Kong & Guangzhou
When Lu Bowen called for Death squad to Huanghuagang Uprising in Guangzhou(广州), 12 volunteers from Medan joined the squad. The squad was led by Luo Zhong Huo. One of them may be Lin Xiu Ming(林修明,1885-1911) from Belitung Island(印尼勿里洞). Others were unknown, as many of them were listed under their ancestral home in China, instead of Indonesia. All died during the uprising.(卢主席又是火水山同盟会支部部长,罗校长也成为同盟会骨干,不久卢君受同盟会总部委托,要求选拔海外青年参加辛亥革命敢死队,卢君不负重任,乃选拔十二人,由罗校长率领到广州,参加广州起义英勇牺牲,成为广州黄花岗七十二烈士之一)

The squad then went to Hong Kong in January 1911. While in Hong Kong, Luo Zhong Huo's wife visited him with his son. But he tried to avoid the meeting, even despite they have not meet for 10 years when Luo was in Nanyang. This reflected his firmness to revolution, and family now was secondary to him, a revolutionist.

During the action in Huanghuakang uprising on 29th March 1911, Luo was injured and caught by the Manchu Army, and was killed when he refused to surrender.

Luo died at the age of 30 years, relatively young.

This was what he wrote to members of Tongmenhui, when he was departing from Penang:



Another poem from Luo, while he was looking at night view from Penang Chinese Town Hall at Pitt Street. I hope I can translate for you;

夜雨有怀 丙午在槟榔屿平章馆楼上晚眺有感(作者:罗仲霍)


Further reading:
1.Huanghua Gang Commemoration Park,
2. 中國電影之父-黎民偉, youtube
3. 回来了!烈士后人祖居祭英雄, 金羊网 2005-11-23 15:12:58
4. 辛亥革命烈士罗仲霍遗诗首次展示,
5. 《槟榔屿孔圣庙中华中小学庆祝创校百周年纪念特刊(1904-2004)》,陈剑虹, 页14至18
6. 火水山中华学校与华侨总会沧桑岁月,
7. 尊孔国民型中学,

Friday, October 7, 2011

Huang Xing(黃興)

Whenever people talk about Chinese Revolution and founding of Republic of China in 1911. They often give credit to Dr Sun Yat-sen. He was glorified as Father Of Modern China(國父). The Xinhai Revolution(辛亥革命)was not only Wu Chang Uprising(武昌起义),it consists of more than 10 uprisings, and ultimately by an event of misfire by a soldier, that sparked the Wu Chang Uprising of soldiers, that spread over the whole China. The result was the fall of Manchu empire in history. Many lost their life, many lost their wealth, just because of their faithful support to revolution. It was 100 years ago. Their names will never mention again, even the famous Huanghuagang Park has been forgotten.

The main revolutionary leaders were Sun Yat-sen (孫中山), Huang Hsing (黃興), Sung Chiao-jen (宋教仁), Ts'ai Yuan-p'ei (蔡元培), Zhao Sheng (趙聲), Zhang Binglin (章炳麟) and Tao Cheng Zhang (陶成章)...and many...most were educated in Japan.

Huang Hsing/Huang Xing (黃興)(b 25-10- 1874 - d 31-10-1916)

Huang Xing was born on 25-10-1874, in the village of Gaotang, Shanhua County(湖南省长沙府善化县高塘乡(今长沙县黄興鎮涼塘), now part of Changsha, Hunan. Like many other Chinese men born before 1949, Huang was known by many different names during his life. His birth name was "Huang Zhen(黄軫), but this was later changed to "Huang Xing(黄兴). He was also known as "Huang Keqiang(黄克強)" and "Qing Wu"(慶午,競武). In the period after 1911 he also used the names "Li Youqing(李有庆)" and "Zhang Shouzheng(张守正)". In Japan, he used the names of Okamoto(冈本义一)、Imamura(今村长藏).

Huang Xing began his studies at the prestigious South Changsha Academy(长沙城南书院) in 1893, and received his Jinshi degree in 1896 when he was only 22 years old. In 1898 Huang was selected to complete further study at Wuchang Lianghu College(两湖书院), from which Huang graduated in 1901. In 1902 Huang was selected by Zhang Zhidong(張之洞)to study abroad in Japan, and was enrolled in the Tokyo Kobun Institute(东京弘文学院), Teacher training(师范科).

Huang also learn Chinese martial art, Wu Style boxing( 巫家拳)under Master Li Yongqiu(李永球)when he was 14 years old.

The Huaxinghui, translated as the China Revival Society, was founded by Huang Xing on February 15, 1904, in Hunan for the explicit goal of overthrowing the Manchu dynasty. Many of its members later became key figures of the Tongmenghui. The Huaxinghui was dominated by students from Hunan who had returned from Japan. Nevertheless from the very beginning it had strong ties with secret societies, especially with the Ko-Lao Hui whose organizational structure the Huaxinghui paralleled, particularly in the field of the military chain of command. This connects to the primary goal of the Huaxinghui: to "kick out the Tartars" through assassinations of important Manchu officials.

After two failed plots, in November 1904 and early 1905, Huang Xing fled to Japan. There he met Sun Yat-sen in the summer of 1905 for the first time in Tokyo, in order to discuss the possibility of the merger of Sun's Xingzhonghui(興中會),and the Huaxinghui. A compromise was reached, and Huang decided to support Sun fully. At this point the Huaxinghui had ceased to exist. On August 20, 1905, Sun Yat-sen was elected Tsung-li (premier) of the new party named Tongmenghui(中国同盟会). Today historians generally agree that without the Huaxinghui's participation, the founding of the Tongmenghui would not have been possible.

On 13 November 1910, Sun Yat-sen, along with several leading figures of the Tongmenhui—such as Zhao Shen, Huang Hsing, Hu Hanmin, and Deng Zeru—gathered for a conference at penang in the Malaya. The meeting was known as Penang Conference. The Penang Conference was held On Nov 13, 1910, at 404, Datuk Keramat Road, Penang to plan the Second Guangzhou Uprising.

The Yellow Flower Mound revolt on 27-4-1911, where many were killed, only 86 bodies found, but 72 only were identified. They were commemorated as the "72 martyrs.". The uprising was led by Zhao Shen(趙聲)as leader, Hwang Xing(黃興) as second commander. Many remember Hwang Xing, but forgot others. The dead were buried together in one grave on the Yellow Flower Mound or Huanghuagang(黃花崗), a mound near where they fought and died which has lent its name to the uprising, Huanghuagang Uprising(黃花崗起義/黄花岗起义). After the Chinese revolution, a cemetery was built on the mound with the names of those 72 revolutionary nationalists. They were commemorated as the "72 martyrs.". The cemetery now has developed into a memorial park, called Huanghuagang Park(黃花崗公園(黃花崗七十二烈士墓) in Guangzhou. Some historians believe that the uprising was a direct cause of the Wuchang uprising, which eventually led to the Xinhai Revolution and the founding of the Republic of China.

Other than Huanghuagang Uprising, Hwang Xing also directly participated in Zhennanguan Uprising(鎮南關起義), Qinzhou and Lianzhou Uprising(欽州、廉州起義), Hekou Uprising(河口起義). After Wu Chang Uprising(武昌起义), he was the Commander of war affairs for The Xinhai Revolution(辛亥革命). He was the one that takeover the Nanking city on 2-12-1911.

On 1 January 1912, Sun Yat-sen announced the establishment of the Republic of China in Nanking, and he was inaugurated as the Provisional president. In the "Inaugural Announcement of Provisional President", the unity of Chinese races as one was greatly emphasized. Huang Xing was appointed both as the Minister of the Army and as Chief of Staff.

Sun did not have military power and ceded the provisional presidency of the republic to strongman Yuan Shikai, who arranged for the abdication of the Last Emperor on February 12, 1912.

On August 25, 1912, the Kuomintang or KMT(中國國民黨) was established at the Huguang Guild Hall in Beijing, where the Revolutionary Alliance and five smaller pro-revolution parties merged to contest the first national elections. Dr Sun Yat-sen, was chosen as the party chairman with Huang Xing as his deputy. The most influential member of the party was the third ranking Song Jiaoren, who mobilized mass support from gentry and merchants for the KMT on a democratic socialist platform in favor of a constitutional parliamentary democracy. The party was opposed to constitutional monarchists and sought to check the power of Yuan. The Kuomintang won an overwhelming majority of the first National Assembly in December 1912.But Yuan soon began to ignore the parliament in making presidential decisions and had parliamentary leader Song Jiaoren(宋教仁)assassinated in Shanghai in 1913.

Members of the KMT led by Sun Yat-sen staged the Second Revolution in July 1913, a poorly planned and ill-supported armed rising to overthrow Yuan, and failed. In 1913 Yuan Shikai expelled KMT members from all government offices and moved the government to Beijing. Huang stayed in Nanjing, and attempted to reorganize the South Army in order to oppose Yuan. Because a shortage of money Huang's army later mutinied, and Huang had to abandon Nanjing and retreat to the foreign concession areas of Shanghai. Dr Sun Yat-sen again fled to Japan in November 1913.

While exiled in Japan in 1914, Sun established the Chinese Revolutionary Party, but many of his old revolutionary comrades, including Huang Xing, Wang Jingwei, Hu Hanmin and Chen Jiongming, refused to join him. The party was undemocratic as it required members to take an oath of personal loyalty to Sun, which contrary to the spirit of the revolution.

Huang went into exile in the United States in 1914, and Yuan Shikai proclaimed himself emperor in 1915. While abroad, Huang raised funds in order to raise a Yunnan National Protection Army to suppress Yuan.

After the death of Yuan, in June 1916, Huang returned to China.

                                      [The tomb of HuangXing at Yuelu Mountain, Changsa, Hunan]

On 31st October 1916, Huang died in Shanghai at the age of 42. On April 15, 1917, Huang was given a state funeral, and was buried in Changsha on Yuelu Mountain(岳麓山). As right hand man of Dr Sun, he should at least buried at Nanking, like Lim Nee Soon(林義順)from Singapore who buried in Nanking together with Dr Sun(The Straits Times, 12 April 1936, Page 1). He was not even buried in Huanghua Park together with the fellow revolutionaries in Guangzhou. He buried at Changsha, capital of his home province, Hunan. Even at his burial ground, it revealed the characteristic of Hwang Xing, he is a real humble revolutionist, to change his country for the good future. He was not pursuing his personal ambition, nor go after political power, and personal wealth. He just give his whole life for the sake of his beloved country. Just simple as that, a real patriotic, a real national hero of China.

What Zhang Tai-yan(章太炎) wrote in the funeral banner(挽联), " There will not have Republic of China without Hwang Xing, history of China will surely record the heroic act of Hwang Xing" (无公乃无民国,有史必有斯人). This provide a fair conclusion on the life of Hwang Xing.

Hwang Xing and Dr Sun Yat-sen

Both Dr Sun Yat-sen and Hwang Xing are commonly called "Sun-Hwang"(“孫黃”)by Chinese people. The term revealed that Hwang is acknowledged equally as heroes and leaders of Chinese Revolution. Some people called Hwang Xing, the 2nd father of modern China.

Dr Sun Yat-sen was the most celebrated personality in history, he was accepted as the leader. However there is another leader, Huang Xing(黃興). He was one of the hero with contribution equal to Dr Sun, and many times he was offered to take over as leader, but he humbly rejected the offer, and give the confirmation on his support for the leadership of Dr Sun Yat-sen. He preferred to play as No 2. He once say to party supporters in San Francisco who asked him to form a new party, "The only leader is Dr Sun Yat-sen, I do not know others"(“领袖惟有孙中山,其他不知也!”). How single minded and faithful, Hwang Xing is to Dr Sun.

Dr Sun was full of ideas, from his western education and oversea exposure, his power of influence is at Guangdong and Guangxi areas. He is more a thinker. Hwang Xing was educated in Kobun Institute, Japan, he started Hua Xing Hui (華興會) in Hunan(湖南) and active in the area along Yangtze River(長江) area. He is man of action. They supplement each other.

At time they have conflicts, but was able to resolve for the sake of their ultimate agenda, to overthrow Manchu. The most critical split was on the incident when Song Jiaoren(宋教仁) was murdered. Hwang Xing insisted on taking legal action, but Dr Sun was in favour of military action against Yuan. Song Jiaoren was the closest friend of Hwang Xing since formation of Huaxinghui(華興會). The other incident was on the selection of national flag for the new China.

Huang Xing in Penang
Huang Xing had been to Penang few times, especially at Penang Conference. He first come to Penang on 12-7-1906, attended Penang Conference on 13-11-1910. It was also in Penang that he first met his companion wife, Miss Xu Zonghan(徐宗汉), a female pioneer member of Tung Menhui in Penang. In 1907, Xu Zonghan(徐宗汉) was offered a teaching post in Penang, the proposed Chung Hwa Girl School(中华女学). But she joined Tung Menhui and left Penang in 1908 to prepare for Huanghua Kang Uprising in Guangzhao.

His family received no financial gains nor honour, as family of hero of Chinese revolution. They are a commoner like other Chinese citizen. That is the spirit of Huang Xing....

But people remember Dr Sun Yat-sen, yet forget Huang Xing.....

The personality of real hero....Huang Xing, the leader behind Dr Sun....

That is Huang Xing, a man worthy of our salute; a man that worthy to call the 2nd Father of Modern China.....a man with real love for his country, China.


                                     [Huang Xing's statute at Huang Xing Road,Changsha, Hunan]

1. In Changsha, Nanzheng Street was renamed to Huang Xing Road in 1934. There are also roads named in honor of Huang Xing in Shanghai and Wuhan.
2. The town where Huang Xing was born was renamed "Huang Xing Town" in his honor.
3. Similar to the Zhongshan Parks, the Huang Xing Park in Shanghai is named after Huang Xing.

Suggested readings:
1. Grandchildren of the revolution ,

Tuesday, October 4, 2011

Dr TH Lee(李登輝), President of Fudan University

Li Denghui(李登輝, 1872-1947) has the same Chinese name identical with Lee Tenghui(李登輝, born 1923)of Taiwan. He was in Penang from 1899 -1901 as teacher of early Methodist Boy's School, Penang, formerly known as Anglo Chinese School Penang (ACS Penang).


This Li Denghui(李登輝, 1872-1947) is not the former President of Taiwan, Lee Teng-hui(李登輝, born 1923), a Chinese Hakka who has a Japanese name Iwasato Masao (岩里政男)and considered as Father of Taiwan Independence. Educated mainly in Japanese except post graduate studies in USA. Born in Taiwan. He is a politician, has affinity to Japan. He is agriculturist and politician. He is still alive, and despite old age, still active in the Taiwan independence movement to divide China.

Lee Teng-hui(李登輝, born 1923)President of Taiwan
Lee was born to a Hakka family in the rural farming community of Sanzhi(Sanshi-kyō), Taipei County (Taihoku, now New Taipei City), Taiwan (under Japanese rule at that time). As a child, he often dreamed of traveling abroad, and became an avid stamp collector. Growing up during the Japanese rule of Taiwan, he developed a strong affinity for Japan. His father was a middle-level Japanese police aide and his brother served and died in the Imperial Japanese Navy. Lee—one of only four Taiwanese students in his high school class—graduated with honors and was given a scholarship to Japan's Kyoto Imperial University, then known as Kyoto Technical School. A lifelong collector of books, Lee was heavily influenced by Japanese thinkers like Nitobe Inazo and Nishida Kitaro in Kyoto. In 1944 he too volunteered for service in the Imperial Japanese Army and became a second lieutenant officer of an anti-aircraft gun in Taiwan. He was ordered back to Japan in 1945 and participated in the clean-up after the great Tokyo firebombing of March, 1945. Lee stayed in Japan after the surrender and graduated from Kyoto University in 1946. He later graduated from National Taiwan University in agricutural science, and further studied at post graduate level at Iowa State University(Master in agricultural economic) and Cornell University(PHD). he was first communist, and then joined KMT. When Chiang Ching-kuo died in January 1988 and Lee succeeded him as President of Taiwan.(wikipeidia)

He is a different person, much more senior, he was Lee Teng Hwee outside China and Dr TH Lee to the west. He was the beloved former President of Fudan University.

This Li Denghui, was a Nanyang Fujian Chinese, born in Indonesia. He studied in ACS, Singapore. He was a former teacher from ACS Penang, now Methodist Boy's School, Penang, and the first President of Fudan University(复旦大学), Shanghai, China. His education background was Christian Anglo-Saxon ACS, and US educated from Yale. He was educationalist and social reformist, not politician. He supported the resistance during the 2nd Sino-Japanese War. He was in the movement to unite China during 1905-1947 until he died.

The only common is they are both Christian. Dr TH Lee is a Methodist, President Lee of Taiwan is Presbyterian.

Li Denghui/Lee Teng Hwee(1873-1947)President of Fudan

Li Denghui (李登輝, 1872-1947, zi Tingfei, 騰飛), was the president of Fudan University during 1917-1937.

Li's ancestors came from Tong'an District, Fujian Province(福建同安人), but he was born in Batavia or Djakarta on 18-4-1872, Dutch East Indies. He is the eldest son of Lie Khay Gwan, a batik merchant.

Batavia(巴達維亞,now Djakarta )1872-1886
Born in 1872, eldest son of Lie Khay Gwan , to the family of a poor farmer with a small trading business in a small West Java town near Batavia (Djakarta), he was the eldest in a family with five brothers and two sisters. He studied at an elementary school, going by horsecart, but staying at home on rainy days to help his mother look after his siblings. His mother's death in 1885 when he was just 13 affected the business but Denghui showed little interest in the business or domestic chores. After his father remarried, he agreed to let the restless lad go to Singapore to further his studies in 1886 when he was 14 years old.

Singapore 1886-1889, 1891
He arrived fairly soon after ACS was founded, and was entrusted to his father's business associate, one Mr Tan, who looked after him and arranged for him to be enrolled in the school. With an emphasis on English, science and mathematics, together with regular Bible study, a number of students became Christians, and Denghui's Christian faith and his belief in the value of loyalty, purity, generosity and love came from his three years at Anglo Chinese School(ACS), Singapore.

In his second and third year, he had all his meals with the Rev William Oldham, while he would wander off after church on Sundays to ponder over the window of knowledge which he widened when he went overseas to study Greek, Latin, French, the arts and literature of the Renaissance, and English Literature - a background from which he was later to teach at Fudan University.

At ACS, he was a good scholar, and must have impressed Oldham who accompanied him to Batavia some time in 1889 (before going on medical leave in America). With Oldham's encouragement and financial assistance from the Methodist Mission, he sailed for America in 1891 where he spent some time at Ohio Wesleyan University preparatory to admission to Yale from where he graduated with a BA degree in 1899.

Note: ACS was founded on March 1, 1886 by Bishop William Fitzjames Oldham, as an extension of the Methodist Church. Its first location was a shophouse at 70 Amoy Street with a total of 13 pupils. We do not know is Lee among the first batch students. The name of the school came from the fact that it conducted lessons in English in the nights and Chinese in the afternoons. By the following year, enrollment had increased to 104, and the school moved to Coleman Street on 15-11-1886. There were 28 students, Lee teng Hui was the student among the 28 at Coleman Street. Lee Teng Hwee was the price winner for standard 1 in 1887. (source: ACS Magazine, 1904)

1891-1899 America
At ACS, he was a good scholar, and must have impressed Oldham who accompanied him to Batavia some time in 1889 (before going on medical leave in America). With Oldham's encouragement and financial assistance from the Methodist Mission, he sailed for America in 1891 where he spent some time at Ohio Wesleyan University preparatory to admission to Yale from where he graduated with a BA degree in 1899. At Yale, he followed a humanities course and studied Greek, Latin, French, the arts of the Renaissance and English Literature. Soon after, he responded to a call by Bishop Thoburn for teachers to serve in Methodist schools in this country.

1899 -1901 , 1904 Penang
His Christian background now encouraged him to answer Bishop Thoburn's call for volunteer missionaries to teach in India and Malaysia, as did James Hoover - who later became a key Methodist missionary in Sarawak. Both men actually sailed together to Penang where they joined the staff of ACS Penang(now MBS, Methodist Boy's School), and were members of the school committee along with Dr. B. F. West, G. F. Pykett and J. W. W. Hogan in 1900.

ACS Penang was found by Rev BH Balderston on 28-5-1891. , G. F. Pykett was appointed principal on 10-4-1893. On 1-1-1897, the school moved to Maxwell Road from the Carnarvon Street. TH Lee(Lee Teng Hwee) arrived from America in Sept 1899. He took the class of Standard VI. No mention of when Lee left the school(ACS Magazine, 1904)
Li Denghui as an intensely patriotic Nanyang Chinese, bitterly disappointed at the failure of the efforts by early Chinese patriots like Kang Youwei and Liang Qichao to modernise China and he thus resolved to devote his life to serve its people. He founded a debating society in 1899, similar to that established earlier in Singapore by Dr Lim Boon Keng whom he met in Penang. He linked the causes of the problems besetting China to a blindly conservative mentality, an incompetent, corrupt and unjust ruling class, the exclusion of women from education, and the observance of ancestral worship. This led him towards the need for reform in China.

Deciding that his future lay in social action, Li Denghui left Penang, and spent three years in Batavia unsuccessfully pursuing his ideal of providing a new kind of education. In 1904, he revisited Penang, meeting a number of other Nanyang Chinese with similar ideals - Dr Wu Lian Teh, Dr Gu Li Ting and Hong Mu Huo - firming up some ideas which were later applied in China, where he spent the rest of his life.

1901-1903 Batavia

Li Denghui left Penang, and spent three years in Batavia unsuccessfully pursuing his ideal of providing a new kind of education.

Li was active in Strait Chinese Reform Movement in Batavia, he and Lim Boon Keng,OBE(林文慶) made regular trips from Singapore to Batavia to publicize the movement. In 1895, Lim was member of the British Legislative Council in Singapore. he headed a Commission Of Inquiry into the sources of poverty in Singapore(1896). Lim was also a justice of the peace and a member of the Chinese Advisory Board. Lim founded the Philomatic society and published the first Straits Chinese Magazine in 1897. He campaigned against the wearing of the pigtails among Chinese men, and opium smoking, forming Anti-Opium Society in Singapore.

Lim Boon Keng, who started promoting modern Chinese education during the Confucian revival movement in the Straits Settlements at the end of the 19th century, played an important role in the initial stages of the educational movement in Java. A report shows that Lim Boon Keng appointed THHK’s first principal. He also appointed a teacher for THHK. In 1902, on the occasion of celebrating the anniversary of the THHK school, The Straits Chinese Magazine, edited by Lim Boon Keng and Song Ong Siang, acknowledged THHK’s contribution in awakening the Indies Chinese and praised the spirit of reform in the Dutch East Indies(source: The Educational Movement in Early 20th Century Batavia and Its Connections with Singapore and China, by Oiyan Liu, ).

Tiong Hoa Hwee Kwan or THHK(中华会馆, Zhong Hua Hui Guan), or in Indonesian language, Rumah Perkumpulan Tionghoa, was an organization establsihed on 17-3-1900 by the local Batavia Chinese. It was popularly known as THHK Batavia (Bahoa)by the locals. A Chinese school, Tiong Hoa Hak Tong(巴城中華學堂, later changed its name to Sekolah Tiong Hoa HWE Koan, Sekolah PA HOA(八華學校), 1901-1966)established on 17-3- 1901 by Tiong Hoa Hwee Koan-Batavia or THHK Batavia or Bahoa (椰城中华会馆, , established on 17-3- 1900)with the goal to reform the oversea Chinese in Dutch East Indies(now Indonesia). The school was located at 31, Jalan Patekoan(八帝贯街), now Jalan Perniagaan Raya, that was why it was called Sekolah PA HOA(八華學校). It was the first Chinese school in Dutch East Indies(now Indonesia). (source: Prominent Indonesian Chinese: biographical sketches, by Leo Suryadinata, Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 1995, pg 75). Today Sekolah Terpadu Pahoa (八华学校) is located at Summarecon Serpong, Tangerang.

Soon after THHK’s foundation, the association extended its reach to Batavia with the institutionalisation of the English school called Yale Institute(耶鲁学院). Yale Institute was supervised by the THHK, but founded by Lee Teng-Hwee, a Batavia-born Peranakan Chinese who had started an English school in Penang with Lim Boon Keng after his studies at the Anglo-Chinese School in Singapore (source: The Educational Movement in Early 20th Century Batavia and Its Connections with Singapore and China, by Oiyan Liu). The founding of English school supervised by THHH revealed the influence of the Singapore publicists on the movement. The Confucian Revival Movement in Singapore was part of the larger Straits Chinese Reform Movement.

Lee established an English elementary school and named after his alma mater, Yale Institue (Yale Institution, Afdeeling) C of Perkumpulan THHK ) on 1-9- 1901 at Batavia(now Jakarta), he left in 1903. He also taught in Tiong Hoa Hak Tong(巴城中華學堂).

At that time THHH was still under the influence sphere of reformist movement Baohuanghui (保皇會) or Protect the Emperor Society of Kang You-wei(康有为/康有為, 1858-1927)along with his famed student, Liang Qichao, were important participants in a campaign to modernize China now known as the Hundred Days' Reform. Establishment of Chong Hwa School(中华学堂) or Confucius School(尊孔学堂),and Confucius society(孔教会) were part of their activities. Lee left in 1903 after unsuccessfully pursuing his ideal of providing a new kind of education under the sphere of reformists influence. (source:

On January 1905, Yale Institute(巴城耶鲁学院)and Tiong Hoa Hak Tong(中华学堂)merged to form Sekolah Pa Hoa(八華學校).

Lee was also involved in establishing the Lie Loen Hwee in Batavia, a Chinese debating club.

1903 San Francisco Bar his entry to USA

1903 - On the 19th July., Teng Hwee Lee, a graduate of Yale in 1899, arrived at San Francisco and was not permitted to land. He had been teaching in the Straits Settlement and had returned to this country to take a graduate course at one of our universities. Unfortunately he did not have with him the certificate which entitled him to admission,( The Independent, Volume 55, 1904- 1947 Shanghai, Published for the proprietors by S.W. Benedict, 1903) A young Chinamen, Teng Hwee Lee, is held at San Francisco, awaiting permission to enter the linked States. He is a graduate of Yale, class of '99, and, after establishing an English school at Batavia, has returned to this country to take a post graduate course in political economy at Columbia University. Mr Lee has hired a lawyer but does..( American Co-operator, Volume 2, Issue 41 - Volume 3, Issue 76, 1903)

BAR OUT CHINESE SCHOLAR.; Teng Hwee Lee, Yale, '99, Likely to be Deported - He Wished to Enter Columbia.( The New York Times,July 20, 1903,pg1)

It was sad for the young Chinese for failure to continue his study at Columbia University, the problem at the immigration can be easily resolved on the spot, but the bureaucratic with racial biases, deprived the young Lee the opportunity to further his post graduate degree. It may be disappointment at that time, but it was a blessing for Fudan later.

Penang 1904

In 1904, he revisited Penang, meeting a number of other Nanyang Chinese with similar ideals - Dr Wu Lian Teh/Dr Gnoh Lean Tuck(伍连德, 1879-1960, who left to China in 1907), Dr Gu Li Ting and Hong Mu Huo - firming up some ideas which were later applied in China, where he spent the rest of his life.  

The movement for the federation of world Chinese students was suggested by Mr Tse Tsan Tai(謝纘泰/謝贊泰, 1872-1938, first Chinese to fly an airship, China in 1899), in his letter to his friend, Dr Gnoh Lean Tuck(伍连德), MA,MD(Cantab)of Penang in Oct 1904, and Dr Gnoh and his friends in Penang was the one to set the ball rolling in the right direction.( Eastern Daily Mail and Straits Morning Advertiser, 11 September 1905, Page 3)

On 7th June 1904, Lee Teng Hwee arrived in the colony(Hong Kong) on board SS Darmstadt, and after conferring with Mr Tse Tsan Tai, he proceeded direct to Shanghai where it had been decided that the HQ will be established . The President of Shanghai was Mr Lee Teng Hwee, BA(Yale), Vice Presidents were HK Woo, BA(Chinese degree), TY Kung, BA(Chinese degree),Dr Gnoh Lean Tuck, MA,MD(Cantab) was the President in Penang, Dr Koh Lip Ting, MBCHB(Edin) was the Treasurer( Eastern Daily Mail and Straits Morning Advertiser, 11 September 1905, Page 3). Li Deng-hui was the President until 1915.

1904 Shanghai

He arrived in Shanghai in October 1904, organized the World Chinese Student Federation(WCSF) or Huanqiu Zhongguo Xuesheng Zonghui(寰球中國學生會) on 1st July 1905 and was its first President, aiming to promote social justice in China, unite Chinese students studying overseas, and help members secure employment, medical care and legal advice. Yan Huiqing(顏惠慶, also known as WW Yen,1877-1950)was the first chairman of the board of directors for the World Chinese Students Federation. Similar associations were set up in Penang, Qingdao, Fuzhou, Hawaii and Singapore. Most of the original members of the federation were Christians and patriots. Eastern Daily Mail and Straits Morning Advertiser, 5 September 1905, Page 2 reported his good friend in Singapore , Dr Lim Boon Keng will be asked to start in Federation

1905, he was first Dean of studies, Fudan Public School found by Ma Xiangbo(马相伯). The pioneer staff of Fudan Public School.

He was editor of the Republican Advocate, Shanghai, and editor of the English department of the Chung Hwa Book Company, 1912-13

From 1913 to 1916, he was the principal of Fudan Public School(复旦公学). He was appointed as first President of Fudan Private Univesity (私立复旦大学)in August 1917 when Fudan Public School upgraded to university status. He served as President of Fudan Univesity from 1917 -1936. Fudan was his life, his life had been given all to Fudan.

He passed away in November 1947 in Shanghai.

From 1905 until his death in 1947, he was with Fudan in various role and capacity. We can boldly say, Fudan without Li Deng Hui is not Fudan. Fudan is Li Deng Hui, and Li Deng Hui is Fudan, they are one. All his life was for Fudan. The history of Fudan was his life story.

Names of past President, Fudan University

1913-1936 Li Denghui (李登辉)
1918 Tang Luyuan (唐路园), acting when Li Denghui went to Nanyang for fund raising.
1924-1925 Guo Renyuan (郭任远), acting Li Denghui went for holiday in Nanyang.
1936-1940 Qian Xinzhi (钱新之), replaced Li Denghui.
1940-1943 Wu Nanxuan (吴南轩), President when university was moved to Chongqing during resistance war , Li Deng hui was in charge of the university remained at Shanghai.
1943-1949 Zhang Yi (章益)
1949-1977 Chen Wangdao (陈望道)

History of Fudan Public School(复旦公学)
(i)Aurora College or Zhendan Public School (震旦公學, 震旦学院)1903

Fudan Public School(复旦公学) and Aurora College(震旦学院, later Aurora University or Université l'Aurore, 1903-1952) was actually from the same school. Aurora or L’Aurore is the Hindu name for China. The founder was Father Joseph Ma Xiangbo S.J. (马相伯, 1840-1939) and French Jesuits. The University was founded on 27th February, 1903, initially located at unused excess house(徐家汇天文台旧址) of The St. Ignatius Cathedral of Shanghai or Xujiahui Catholic Church(聖依納爵主教座堂/徐家汇天主堂), No 158, Puxi Road, Shanghai(上海市徐汇区浦西路158号). Aurora College was later moved to Luban Lu, Luwan district(卢家湾吕班路, 今卢湾区鲁班路)in 1908. Later Aurora university was kept by French Jesuits until the coming of Communist Revolution. It was situated from 1908 in the French concession of Shanghai.

Aurora College(震旦学院), Shanghai was the first Chinese community built university and also first Christian university for modern education in history of China.
Ma Xiangbo left in 1904, and later established a new school, Fudan Public School(復旦公學)in 1905.

(ii)Fudan Public School(復旦公學) 1905

Fudan Public School was found on 4-9-1905. 西元 1905 年是復旦大學開校的第一屈,由教育家--馬相伯和他的弟子:于右任,葉仲裕,邵力子,王侃叔,沈步洲,張軼歐,葉藻庭所創。校名是由于右任從「卿雲歌」的「明光華,旦復旦兮」,中擷取「復旦」兩字,經馬相伯同意,表示不忘「震旦」之舊,更具恢復中華之意。
The two Chinese characters Fu (復) and Dan (旦), literally meaning "(heavenly light shines) day after day", were chosen by the distinguished educator in modern Chinese history, Father Ma Xiangbo S.J. (马相伯), from the Confucian Classics book Shang Shu Da Zhuan - Yu Xia Zhuan(尚书大传-虞夏传): "Itinerant as the twilight, sun glows and moon luminesces" (日月光華,旦復旦兮). Fudan(復旦) also means reinstate of Dan(旦or 震旦).
Fudan Public School opened at Wusong(吴淞), a port town located fourteen miles downriver from Shanghai. Note: The Woosung area was abolished in 1964 and incorporated with Baoshan County(宝山县)into the Baoshan District(宝山区)of Shanghai in 1988). The school was initially located temporary at borrowed premise, a Manchu navy camp office(吴淞镇水师提督行辕) at the port.

1911-1913, he was Editor in Chief of Republican Advocate. At almost the same time, he was appointed supervisor(Dean of studies) of Fudan Public School(复旦公学) by its founder, Ma Xiangbo(马相伯), a Christian, whose intention was to select high school students by examination and train them in higher level subjects in the English language thereby enabling them to gain admission to European universities for specialized subjects.

1913-1914, he worked for a large publisher Zhonghua Shuju , and become the head of its English department. In 1913 he was also appointed as Principal of Fudan Public School

1911 - During the Xinhai Revolution the college campus at Wusong(吴淞) was taken up as the headquarters of the Revolutionist or Guangfu Army(光复军司令部) and closed down for almost one year. The campus now is located School of Management, Fudan University(复旦大学管理学院), found in 1985( The school moved to Wuxi for nearly a month.

The principal,Father Ma Xiangbo(校长马相伯)and Dean of Studies(教务长)Hu Dunfu(胡敦复, 1886—1978)with the support of gentry at Wuxi, borrowed the Lee Hang Zhang ancestral Temple(李汉章大公祠)as school and Zhao Zhong Temple(昭忠祠) as school hostel. At the same time the school also prepared for reopening of the original school.

In 1913, when Ma Xiangbo(马相伯) had to leave China, Li assumed the position of Principal, teaching several subjects such as English, Logic and Philosophy.
In 1917, when Fudan Public School became a private Fudan University(私立復旦大學) with a modern curriculum in the humanities, natural sciences and business as well as modern European languages, he became its first President. Unique in being a private institution, it was staffed mainly with teachers who had been trained in the West.
(Note: Fudan was changed to public university in 1941 as National Fudan University (國立復旦大學) at Beibei, Chongqing (重庆北碚)where it moved in 1937 during the Chinese Resistance War(抗日战争).

From 1905-1911, Fudan produced 4 batches of high school graduates , with 57 students (1905~1911年,复旦公学培养出四届高等正科 ,毕业生共57人)

1912 - After Xinhai Revolution and formation of ROC

1912 – On 5th May 1912, the Education Ministry of Provisional Government of Nanjing, informed all provinces in China that the revolutionary war was over, instructed that all high schools, colleges and universities can now open. Fudan was trouble with the problem of premise, finance. One of the former student, Yu Youren(于右任) who has become Deputy Minister of Transport & Communication of provisional government, reported to the Provisional President Dr Sun Yat- sen, who immediately allocated relief fund for 10,000 yuan. The school was provided with Li Hong–zhang ancestral hall (李鸿章祠堂) for the school premise, thus solved the problem. Temporary the school borrowed premise in Elgin Road(爱而近路), now Anqing Road(安庆路) , moving to Li Hong-zhang ancestral hall only in September.

Later, Father Ma Xiangbo(校长马相伯) was appointed important post in Beijing, and unable to manage the school affairs. The school was without principal, it was managed by Provost Hu Dunfu(胡敦复), and Dean of General affairs Ye Zao-ting (庶务长叶藻庭). Unfortunately in December, student protests happened. The school formed the school governor committee to govern the school affairs; the committee members included Dr Sun Yat-sen, Wang Chong-hui(王宠惠)、Chen Yingshi(陈英士)、Cheng Dequan(程德全)、Tang Shaoyi(唐绍仪)、Yu Youren(于右任) and others. Wong Chong-hui(王宠惠) was selected as Chairman of the Board of Governors(董事长). The first board meeting also decided that the School constitution need to be review,fund raising project approved,and Li Deng-hui appointed as new principal(李登辉任校长).

(Yet he had the time to wrote an article in The Strait Time, Singapore(THE NATIONAL RECLAMATION ASSOCIATION. Lee Teng-Hwee, B.A. By What promise, perhaps, to be one of the most important and useful institutions m connection with the new Republican' Government, is the National Reclamation Association which held its first meeting on the 18th March at Nanking. That it will become a... Weekly Sun, 28 September 1912, Page 4)

1913 - On 1/3/1913, Fudan reopened. The first parliamentary election was in February 1913 , which then convened the National Assembly of the Republic of China for the first time on April 8. The Kuomintang won majority of the seats, and Song Jiaoren(宋教仁) was designated to form the cabinet. He was assassinated by President Yuan Shikai shortly after .

On 3rd May, the community in Shanghai paid their last respect to Song Jiaoren(宋教仁, 1882-1913), the funeral arrangement was by students of Fudan, The President of Fudan Mr Li Denghui, and teachers Shao Lizi/Shao Li-tzu(邵力子,1882-1967)、Chiang Mei Sheng(蒋梅笙, 1871-1942, who is father in law of Xu Beihong) give a farewell speech at the funeral ceremony.

On 15th July, Hwang Xing declared Jiangsu independence in the 2nd Revolution(二月革命)started by Dr Sun Yat-sun to declare war on Yuan Shi-kai, Jiangsu provincial military governor Cheng Dequan (江苏都督程德)was appointed as commander of South Army, but he disobeyed and escaped to Shanghai. (Cheng was in the board of Fudan). The 2nd revolution failed, many members of board of governors of Fudan, who were involved escaped oversea, this badly affected the finance of the school. Principal Li Deng Hui begin to cut expenses , with the coorperation of the students, Fudan was able to overcome the financial problem.

1915 – The principal Li Denghui planned to acquire land in Jiangwan(江湾), so to have a permanent campus for Fudan. The dream of Li Deng Hui was to have a university on par with his alma mater, Yale University, the Yale of the east. The university campus was part of the plan.

During 1912-1916, a total of 150 completed their high school, and 15 students graduated from School of Pre -university. Two of the famous one were 张志让、孙越崎.

1917 – 1937 Fudan University as Private University

In 1917, Fudan Public School began to offer undergraduate programs and officially renamed itself "Fudan Private University"(私立复旦大学). Li Deng-hui was the first president of Fudan University from 1917 to 1937. After being expanded to a full-fledged university, the University had an increasing enrollment. It had three schools: Arts, Sciences and Business, a prep school, and a section of secondary education.

1918- Li Denghui went to Nanyang(South east Asia) to raise fund for purchasing building land to develop university campus at Jiangwan(江灣).

1919 - When May Fourth Movement started, Fudan's teacher Shao Lizi(邵力子), who was also the chief editor of Republic Daily(民国时报), informed the President Li Deng Hui and other Fudan students, they formed United Shanghai Students Association(上海市学生联合会), they support class boycott ,industrial strike, and they were in the frontline of the movement in Shanghai. Dr Sun Yat-sen give moral support to the students.

As President of Fudan University, he lent active support to the May 4 Movement that had started in Beijing and spread to Shanghai in May 1919, providing refuge for students who had been dismissed from Beijing University for their involvement.

Despite the efforts of Li to defend the actions of the students as patriotic, the authorities took a hard line, arresting and punishing them. This resulted in a general strike by students in Shanghai, supported by public works personnel. In the ensuing confrontation, the Republic of China Student Union convened a meeting to elect representatives, attended by Li. When things had quietened down, Li chaired a public talk attended by more than 100 Chinese students who had studied in Europe and America, and encouraged them to work hard and diligently in order to reform the new China.

(extract from ACS Old Boy headed Fudan University in Shanghai,, with thanks)

1920- The construction of campus at Jiangwan(江灣)started in 1920 winter, and it was completed in 1922.

(i) Teaching Building- The Hall of 简公堂(now Fudan Museum, 复旦博物馆), 这幢楼在一九二二年春天落成时,取名简公堂,因为李登辉校长当年在董事长唐少川(绍仪)先生的协助下,向南洋烟草公司简照南、简玉阶兄弟募得银洋五万元,用以建造了这
(ii) Office block, 奕柱堂, (1929 added two wings, and converted into Library, now Faculty of Economic)年增添两翼,改作图书馆,今经济学院)
(iii) No 1 Student hostel(destroyed during the WW2), now location of The Hall of XiangHui (相辉堂), original name was actually Hall of Tenghui (登辉堂)when built in 1947, but it was changed to Xianghui in 1985 during the Fudan 80th anniversary. 原名登辉堂,建于一九四七年初夏。校庆八十周年(1985年),学校领导为了永远纪念马相伯和李登辉两位先生又改称相辉堂,并请周谷城先生题字。相辉堂现在作为舞台使用,各种表演、演讲、报告等都有可能在相辉堂进行.
(iv) teacher hostel( destroyed)

In 1928-1930, Li Deng-hui served as an executive member of the Chinese National Anti-Opium Committee

In 1929, Fudan University altered its educational system and opened four new departments: journalism, civil administration, law, and education. It consisted of seventeen departments, which comprised the four schools: Arts, Sciences, Law, and Business.

1931- The Mukden Incident, also known as the Manchurian Incident (九•一八事变), was a staged event that was engineered by Japanese military personnel as a pretext for invading the northern part of China known as Manchuria in 1931. On the night of 18 September Lieutenant Kawamoto Suemori (河本末守中尉)and seven or eight subordinates of his in the Railway Garrison managed to detonate explosives placed on the railway-line at Liutiaokou near Mukden (now Shenyang). The railway line was owned by Japan's South Manchuria Railway. Although the explosion was so weak that it failed to destroy the lines and a train passed minutes later, the Imperial Japanese Army, accusing Chinese dissidents of the act, responded with a full invasion that led to the occupation of Manchuria, in which Japan established its puppet state of Manchukuo six months later. The incident led to diplomatic isolation of Japan and its withdrawal from the League of Nations.

The principal Lee Deng-hui organized a Student Rally (声讨大会)at Fudan to denounce and condemn the attack , and established a Military Training Committee to train students on basic military skills. The students appealed to KMT government 3 times to sent resistance force against Japanese army. On 20-11-1931, about 100 students of Fudan formed a Army Volunteers (义勇军), to join the KMT resistance force, 19th Route Army (十九路军). 19th Routh Army was KMT army led by General Cai Tingkai (蔡廷锴) in Shanghai. They were given the task of logistics support, propaganda and education during the war. Fudan moved to Xujiahui High School(徐家汇附中) now Fudan High School to continue teaching.

1932- The January 28 Incident (January 28 – March 3, 1932) was a short war between the armies of the Republic of China and the Empire of Japan, before official hostilities of the Second Sino-Japanese War commenced in 1937.

1935 - The December 9th Movement ( 一二九运动) refers to a mass protest led by students in Beiping (present-day Beijing) on December 9, 1935 that demands the Kuomintang government to actively resist potential Japanese aggression. The protest movement was supported by students all over the country. Response was very positive as similar petitions and assemblies were organized in many large cities. The students of Fudan responded by sending petition to the Shanghai City government, and also met at the railway station to prepare for petition to Nanjing, the capital. General Chiang Kai-sheh phoned the President Li Deng Hui, ordered him to stop the students from going to Nanjing. The students rejected the appeal by their beloved President. The KMT authority blocked the students to enter the train and railway track was destroyed. The students rebuilt the track but was stopped at Wuxi (无锡). In the end , the Beijing–Shanghai Railway or Jinghu railway (京沪铁路) route was interrupted for 4 days, this raised the attention of the international community.

1936 – In the morning of 25-3-1936, Shanghai military police surrounded the campus of Fudan Univeristy, and captured 7 student committee members from the Student Save the Nation Associaiton(学生救国会) who were staying off campus . The same afternoon, military police entered the campus , attacking students and teachers, this action arouse the anger of the students for defense, the polices were chased out from campus. The police then fired outside the campus, killed one police by mistake, but accused the students killed the police. The police entered the campus again, but no students were captured. The President Li Deng Hui officially issued a strong protest against the violence of KMT party. They immediately conducted an extraordinary board meeting, demanded an official explanation from the mayor of Shanghai , Wu Tiecheng(吴铁城, 1888-1953) , who was also garrison commander for Songhu(淞沪警备司令). Wu admitted that it was their mistake and the news wrongly reported student shot the policeman, and guaranteed that no similar incident will happen again. The local community also voiced their opposition to the students arrest. KMT finally released all the students.

Later of the year, President Li Deng-hui was asked to resign by the KMT party. Dr Wu Nan-xuan or Nan-hsuan M. Woo (吴南轩, 1983-1980) was appointed to replace him as President of the Fudan University. He was the alumni of the Fudan’s pre-university school, graduated in 1919, and former President of Tsing Hua University(1931.4 - 1931.6). The students suffered under political pressure from KMT , and all student political activities were stopped.

Mr Li Denghui after resigned from Fudan, visited Sichuan in Oct 1936, he was warmly welcome by the alumni and students of Fudan. This console the wounded soul of the old President of Fudan.

The Marco Polo Bridge Incident (盧溝橋事變/七七事變)on 7-7-1937 started the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945). It led directly into full scale war with the Battle of Beiping-Tianjin at the end of July and the Battle of Shanghai in August.

1937 - The Battle of Shanghai, known in Chinese as Battle of Songhu(淞滬會戰) from August 13, 1937 to November 26, 1937, was the first of the twenty-two major engagements fought between the National Revolutionary Army of the Republic of China and the Imperial Japanese Army of the Empire of Japan during the Second Sino-Japanese War. It was one of the largest and bloodiest battles of the entire war. Song (淞) comes from Wusong (吳凇) Hu (滬) is the abbreviation for the city itself. The battle is also referred to as 813(八.一三”淞沪抗战), denoting August 13, the date when battle began. 1937 Battle of Shanghai was a full-scale battle signifying the beginning of an all-out war between the two countries. The first gunshot was fired at Xhabei(闸北), Shanghai, the location close to Fudan city campus.

After the Battle of Shanghai, the battle adversely affected the student attendance. The education department of Nanjing government, instructed the Fudan University , together with other universities of Shanghai, Daxia University, Datong University, Guanghua University, prepared to relocate as temporary United Associated University(临时联合大学). Datong University and Guanghua University, as private university were facing financial constraints and cannot follow. Note: Daxia and Guanghua restricted to become East China Normal University (ECNU)(华东师范大学), Datong University was fragmented to various other universities, and no longer existed). Fudan and Daxia joined to form the temporary united associated university and moved separately to Jiangxi(江西) and Guizhou(贵州).

China started the resistance war against Japan (抗日战争), Fudan university moved to Beibei, Chongqing. On 12th November, Shanghai was occupied by Japanese Imperial Army. The united associated university in Jiangxi decided to move to Guiyang and merged with united associated university in Guizhou. Students continued their long journey and arrived Chongqing in December. The community in Chongqing welcome the Fudan to stay there in Sichuan.

By 1937 Fudan had established four schools (Arts, Sciences, Law, and Business), which were made up of sixteen departments, a secondary school, an experimental secondary school, and two elementary schools for compulsory education. It became one of the most important institutions of academic research and higher education in southeast China.

1938- The Fudan University in Chongqing commenced classes in Febuary with high spirit. There were about 60 graduates from Fudan Chongqing campus for the year.

Students remained in Shanghai also commenced classes(留沪复旦复课)。During the summer, there were 55 graduates for the year

1941 – 1947 Fudan National University(Chongqing)

1941 - The First Session of the 5th Congress of the Executive Yuan (Council) of the Repulic of China voted on 25th, November, 1941 to nationalize the Chongqing Community of Private Fudan University. Wu Nan-xuan (吴南轩)was appointed president of the University.

The Pacific War started on 8th December, Imperial Japanese Army entered Shanghai and based their camps at International Settlement or concession settlement(上海租界). President Li Deng Hui declared that the university practiced “ Three NOs Principle”( 三不主义), which means “ No registration with the Japanese registry, No acceptance of Japanese aids, No interference of university affairs by Japanese”. Even within the hostile environment of Japanese occupation, the university insisted no teaching of Japanese language.

1946- In August , Chongqing Fudan returned to Shanghai(复旦大学渝校的师生回到上海). The university moved to the original campus of Jiangwan in Shanghai

1947 – On 5th July ,Li Deng Hui declared the topic on Spirit of Fudan(复旦精神”) in the graduation ceremony. He said “…服务、牺牲、团结,是复旦的精神,也是你们的责任!”( Service, Sacrifice, and Solidarity is the spirit of the Fudan, it is your responsibility to practice it)

1949 - The university now consists of Art, Science, Law, Commerce, Agriculture Falculty, (学校设立文、理、法、商、农五院20 多个系(科),初具综合性大学的雏形).

In 1937-1945, Fudan University moved to Beibei, Chongqing (重庆北碚). He did not moved to Chongqing, but stay in Shanghai to continue Fudan University in Shanghai . It is perhaps he was then 64 years old and there must be someone remain in Shanghai to take care of the students who cannot moved to Chongqing, he take the decision to remain in the more uncertain and hostile environment.

March 1947, Fudan Alumni Association( was having anniversary dinner/meeting at a restaurant in 5 storey Tashing Company Building, Nanjing Road(南京路大新公司五层楼酒家), Former President Li Deng-hui even both eyes were blinded, attended the dinner with walking stick. After the speech by current President Zhang Yi (章益), the old president suggested that all famous universities in USA, like Havard, Yale, have their own campus flower, Fudan should have their own campus flower. He suggested University flower of Fudan, to be Magnolia denudata(白玉兰). Magnolia denudata, known as the Yulan magnolia (玉蘭花), is native to central and eastern China. It has been cultivated in Chinese Buddhist temple gardens since 600 AD. Its flowers were regarded as a symbol of purity in the Tang Dynasty and it was planted in the grounds of the Emperor's palace. It is the official city flower of Shanghai, and now also the official flower of Fudan University.
May 1947, The Hall of Deng Hui (登辉堂)was completed. Now it is known as Xiang Hui Hall.

On 19/11/1947, the beloved President of Fudan, Dr Li Deng Hui passed away in Shanghai.

Li Deng Hui's Principle

His principle in life is to follow the “Bible”, the main theme of Bible is LOVE, and the most important verse is in the book of 1 Timothy Chapter 1: 5 “The goal of this command is love, which comes from a pure heart and a good conscience and a sincere faith.(但命令的总归就是爱,这爱是从清洁的心和无亏的良心、无伪的信心生出来的)”. Li Deng Hui use Titus Chapter 2: 1-13 “ Doing good for the sake of gospel(为人之道)”as motto in life. This is the verses that he used to remind him all his life. The verses are as follow:

Doing Good for the Sake of the Gospel

1 You, however, must teach what is appropriate to sound doctrine. 2 Teach the older men to be temperate, worthy of respect, self-controlled, and sound in faith, in love and in endurance.
3 Likewise, teach the older women to be reverent in the way they live, not to be slanderers or addicted to much wine, but to teach what is good. 4 Then they can urge the younger women to love their husbands and children, 5 to be self-controlled and pure, to be busy at home, to be kind, and to be subject to their husbands, so that no one will malign the word of God.

6 Similarly, encourage the young men to be self-controlled. 7 In everything set them an example by doing what is good. In your teaching show integrity, seriousness 8 and soundness of speech that cannot be condemned, so that those who oppose you may be ashamed because they have nothing bad to say about us.

9 Teach slaves to be subject to their masters in everything, to try to please them, not to talk back to them, 10 and not to steal from them, but to show that they can be fully trusted, so that in every way they will make the teaching about God our Savior attractive.

11 For the grace of God has appeared that offers salvation to all people. 12 It teaches us to say “No” to ungodliness and worldly passions, and to live self-controlled, upright and godly lives in this present age, 13 while we wait for the blessed hope—the appearing of the glory of our great God and Savior, Jesus Christ, 14 who gave himself for us to redeem us from all wickedness and to purify for himself a people that are his very own, eager to do what is good.

Awards and Honours

honorary member, Chung Hwa Guild of Batavia (1906) ; fellow of the American Geographical Society (1915) ;honorary president of the Huai River Conservancy (1922) ; honorary Litt.D., St. John's University, Shanghai (1919) ; he took an active part in the Student Movement in 1918 ; chairman of the League of Public Organizations to protest against the treaty affecting Chinese rights and oppose China's signature to the Peace Conference at Versailles ; during the Washington Conference he was chairman of the People's National Diplomatic Federation representing 180 organizations all over China; he has held the following honorary positions: chairman, Overseas Chinese Association ; vice-chairman, World Chinese Students Federation ; director, Pan-Pacific Union; director, Christian Educational Association of China ; director, Amoy University ; chairman, National Anti-Opium Association ; member, National Government Opium-Suppression Commission ; member, Diplomatic Commission of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs
(source: Who's who in China)


(i) There was a road within Fudan University, Handan Road Campus(复旦大学邯郸路校区), named after Li Deng Hui(李登辉),Deng Hui Ring Road(登辉环路).
(ii)The Hall of XiangHui (相辉堂),original name was actually Hall of Tenghui (登辉堂)when built in 1947, but it was changed to Xianghui in 1985 during the Fudan 80th anniversary.Named after both Ma Xiong Bo(马相伯) and Li Deng Hui(李登辉), the former principals of Fudan Public School(now Fudan University).
(iii) In Chongqing , the old premise of Fudan University, there is a small tower, named after Lee Deng Hui, the hall of Deng Hui(登辉堂).


1.History of Fudan,
2.Fudan Alumni Association,
4. 復旦大學校長李登輝 64歲抗日被打,
5. 校长之楷模 青年之导师——纪念李登辉校长诞辰133周年,
6. 一代代母校情传后人--儿子李贤政谈李登辉校长,
7. Ma Xiangbo 馬相伯 (1849-1939),
9. 李登辉_(教育家),