Sunday, October 9, 2011

Huanghuakang Uprising(黄花岗起义) & Luo Zhong Huo(罗仲霍)

That day, when I stand at the entrance of Huanghua Gang Commemoration Park (黄花岗公园), located at 79, Xianlie Zhonglu, Guangzhou(广州市先烈中路79号). That was the time when Guangzhou was having Asian Games in 2010. My heart was filled with excitement, this is the place that I longed to come since my primary school day, when I read about the history of Huanghuakang Uprising. The first step that I walked into the park, the parallel lines of flowers plots that greeted me, at the end of the flower plots is the cemetery of the 72 martyrs. Actually is more than 72. The uprising was planned in Penang, and there were some Penang people who died in the uprising. The uprising in the place far from Penang, which was closely connected to the island, and it was the event that was later changed the whole of China and Asia...

Many have forgotten the Huanghuakang Uprising, Malayan school history textbook no longer teach the history, even the Chinese younger generation may not remember the event. This is how the history may be lost in time....

I told my daughter of what had happen in 1911, how a man and many men and women, and some from Penang, was involved in the uprising. She seems not to understand the significance of the event. To her the heroes who died in the event is not as important as the popular idols in Korean movies or Hollywood movies. The history has seem to lost their battle with popular culture in the internet era. But at least she listen and try to understand. May be to her,they have never experience the bloody political historical event, they lived in the peaceful era. They may not understand the era, it was too far for them, 100 years least she take time to search for the names of the people and institution who contribute financially or with their own life....

I was born during the colonial days, WW2 was during my parent's time, and my dear grandmother used to talk about the Xinhai Revolution(辛亥革命), she was born during the era. I read about the history, and Dr Sun Yat-sen was having Penang Conference at the place walking distance from where I was born....I can feel the tempo of the historical event.....and the first place I want to visit in Guangzhou is Huanghua Gang Commemoration Park (黄花岗公园)...and I remember the first time in Kuala Lumpur during my school day hitchhike, when we visited National Monument in Lake Garden. It was the same feeling.....Suddenly it become so familiar and close to heart...

Huanghuakang Uprising(黄花岗起义)

Yellow Flower Mound revolt (黃花岡之役, 黄花岗起义) or (黃花崗起義/黄花岗起义) also known as the Second Guangzhou uprising (辛亥廣州起義/辛亥广州起义) is an uprising led by Zhao Shen(趙聲, 1881-1911) and Huang Xing(黃興, 1876-1916) and his fellow revolutionaries against the Qing Dynasty in Guangzhou.

On 13 November 1910, Sun Yat-sen, along with several leading figures of the Tongmenhui—such as Zhao Shen, Huang Hsing, Hu Hanmin, and Deng Zeru, gathered for a conference at Penang in British Malaya. Having experienced countless failures in previous uprisings, they plotted a decisive battle in Guangzhou against the Qing Government.

On 27 April, Zhao Shen and Huang Hsing commenced the uprising in Guangzhou.

More than 130 people were led by Huang Xiang to attack the government offices for one day and a night. Lin Juemin(林覺民), Yu Peilun, Lin Shishuang and many other heroes gave their lives in the process. Revolutionaries fought fiercely with the Qing Army in the streets, but the rebels were eventually outnumbered and lost. Lin Juemin(林覺民), Yu Peilun, Lin Shishuang and many other heroes gave their lives in the process.


廣東:徐佩旒,徐禮明,徐日培,徐廣滔,徐臨端,徐茂燎,徐松根,徐滿凌,徐昭良,徐培添,徐保生,徐廉輝,徐容九,徐進照,徐褶成,徐應安,李炳輝,李 晚,李文楷,李文甫,李雁南,陳春,陳潮,陳文褒,羅仲霍,羅坤,龐雄,周華,游壽,江繼復,郭繼枚,勞培,杜鳳書,余東雄,馬侶,黃鶴鳴,饒輔廷,張學 銓,周增,林修明;





華僑:黃花崗諸位烈士,有近卅人是新加坡、馬來西亞華僑。其中,羅仲霍、周華、李雁南和陳文褒來自馬來西亞檳城。 李炳煇、郭繼枚、余東雄來自馬來西亞霹靂州。習慣只寫上祖籍,分入廣東、福建。

The remains of 72 rebels were later collected by members of Tongmenhui and interred together at Huanghuagang or Yellow flower Hill(黃花岡). He was Pan Dawei(潘达微), a member of the Hongmenhui or Alliance Society, who risked his life to bury 72 of the martyrs at Huanghuagang in the Tomb of 72 Martyrs in Guangzhou. The martyrs were commemorated as the "72 martyrs". But actually it was more that 72, it reported 86 martyrs, but historically it is still popularly called 72 martyrs. Tomb of 72 Martyrs or Mausoleum of the 72 Martyrs in Guangzhou was built in 1918. The monument was to pay homage to the martyrs who died in the Huanghuakang Uprising, Guangzhou mutiny on April 27, 1911 against the Qing dynasty.

Dr Sun Yat sen, the Father of China, reported that the event is as important as Wuchang Uprising.


Some historians believe that the uprising was a direct cause of the Wuchang uprising(武昌起義), which eventually led to the Xinhai Revolution(辛亥革命) and the founding of the Republic of China.

The "72 martyrs" included 30 from British Malaya, four of them was reported to be from Penang, Luo Zhong Huo(罗仲霍,1881-1911)、Zhou Hua(周华, ?-1911)、Li Yannan(李雁南, 1880-1911) and Chen Wen-bao(陳文褒, 1880-1911). Other than Luo, the background of the others were not clear.

Luo Zhong Huo(罗仲霍,1881-1911)

Luo Zhong Huo's ancestral home was from Lianfengcun(联丰村), Baihuazhen(白花镇), Huidongg(惠东县), Huizhou(惠州市), Guangdong广东省, China. His uncle was a general in Taiping Rebellion. He was a teacher in the village, but later left the village to seek for job in Annam and various towns in Nanyang. (罗仲霍名璋,号则君,惠东白花镇联丰村人。其堂叔祖罗添,是太平天国农民起义军的将领.早年在家乡授徒为业。后赴安南(今越南)及南洋各埠读书、寻找职业). He left China in 1901.

1903 to 1907
He arrived in Penang in 1903, enrolled into Chong Hwa School(中华学堂)school, and at at the mean time also wrote for the local newspaper to meet his living expenses. He later continued school at the teacher training school. Luo was reported graduated from Penang Teacher Training School(槟榔屿师范学堂) in 1906. Chong Hwa School(中华学堂) was formed in 1904, the first modern Chinese school in Penang, it was later changed to Chung Hwa Confucian School. Now it is known as Chung Hwa Confucian High School (孔圣庙中华中学). On 3-10-1906, a teacher training school was also set up, affiliated to Chung Hwa School(胡子春又倡议于中华学堂附设开办马来亚第一间师范传习所). This was the first teacher training school in Malaya. The training was to train primary school teachers within duration of 6 months. Luo must be one of the pioneer graduates from this teacher training school in 1906, probably graduated in April 1907. The teacher training school sadly was only last for one term.

 Note: 陳育崧的考證也顯示,檳榔嶼的師範傳習所,並非是康有為或是兩廣總督岑春(火*宣)特派員創辦,依據他從光緒卅年代理新加坡總領事張弼士到中華的視察記載,傳習所為中華學校所附設。 可惜的是她只辦一期,學生一二十人、6個月畢業,講師是閩中一位舉人。

It was during the time when reformist Kang Youwei(康有为, 1858-1927)was campaigning to modernize China now known as the Hundred Days' Reform(百日維新,戊戌變法) with his famed student, Liang Qichao(梁启超/梁啟超), they were important participants in a opening new modern Chinese schools(新式华校), who was also in Singapore and Penang during the period. He was also the President of Confucius School(孔教会). The schools were popularly named Zhong Hua School(中华学堂)or Confucius School(尊孔学堂). If you are lucky you can find a Chinese calligraphy wrote by Kang Youwei carved on the rock in Kek lok Si temple, he wrote" Forget not my motherland" on 29-6-1903.

The reformist movement was also the political rival of Tongmenhui, they were having political debate in the Chinese newspapers set up in oversea or nanyang. Luo was a Chinese scholar, he also wrote for the local Chinese newspaper to promote modern new ideas. Both political camps had their respective supporters in Nanyang.

May 1907-1908
He also helped in the donation campaign to set up Confucian School(尊孔学堂)in 1906, now Confucian Private Secondary School(尊孔独立中学)in Kuala Lumpur. The school opened on 24-5-1907. It was reported that he was the first principal(旋筹办吉隆尊孔学堂自任校长). But from the history of the school reported in their school official website, the first principal was Lip Siau Yoon (聂少云) from May 1907 to February 1908, Luo Zhong Huo(罗仲霍) may be the pioneer teacher or provincial principal before the school officially opened in 1907. He was freshly graduated from the teacher training school in April 1907, may not be appropriate to be the principal at that time.

Luo was a teacher of Chong Hua School(崇华学堂)in 1908,which was located at Pingzhang Huiguan or Ping Zheng Association(平章会馆), Pitt Street; now known as Chinese Town Hall or DEWAN PERHIMPUNAN CINA PULAU PINANG(槟州华人大会堂). The school was opened on 4-4-1908, and changed its name to Shih Chung School, later moved to Love Lane and now know as SJK(C) Shih Chung Cawangan P. Pinang(时中学校). He was the pioneer teacher in the school.

He later become the principal of Zhong Hua School(中华学堂) in Medan(棉兰市), Dutch East Indies, now Indonesia(荷属火水山中华学堂充校长),and also the editor for the local newspaper(该埠报馆主笔). The school was Dun Ben School(敦本学校), the first Chinese school in Medan, formed by President of Chinese Chamber of Commerce(中华商会), Lu Bowen(卢博文)in 1909. But due to initial financial constraint, it need the support of Zhang Rong Xuan(张耀轩), and the name was changed to Zhong Hua Dun Ben School(中华敦本学校), when the sponsorship withdrawn in 1917, it changed to Zhong Hua School(中华学堂). The first principal was Luo Zhong Huo(罗仲霍). Lu Bowen was the President of Tongmenhui in Medan, and Luo was already a member while in Penang in 1906.

Tongmenhui member

When Dr Sun Yat sen speak in Penang in 1906, Luo joined Tongmenhui and begin active political activities in Malaya, being a good orators, he was able to attract many members. One of them was a pastor,Li Bing Hui(李炳辉,1890-1911) and his god brothers Yu Dong Xiong(余东雄, 1893-1911) and Guo Ji Mei (郭继枚, 1892-1911)from Perak. Li was a former student of ACS, Ipoh, he later attended a Christian college in Malacca to be a christian pastor(it cannot be The Anglo Chinese College as it had moved to Hong Kong in 1843), he joined Singapore Presbyterian Church(新加坡英国长老会教堂). Luo met him in Singapore, and invited him to join Tongmenhui.

Luo also met Li Bing Hui's former teacher, Hu Hanmin(胡汉民), now Dr Sun's follower, and right hand man, in Penang.

1911 Hong Kong & Guangzhou
When Lu Bowen called for Death squad to Huanghuagang Uprising in Guangzhou(广州), 12 volunteers from Medan joined the squad. The squad was led by Luo Zhong Huo. One of them may be Lin Xiu Ming(林修明,1885-1911) from Belitung Island(印尼勿里洞). Others were unknown, as many of them were listed under their ancestral home in China, instead of Indonesia. All died during the uprising.(卢主席又是火水山同盟会支部部长,罗校长也成为同盟会骨干,不久卢君受同盟会总部委托,要求选拔海外青年参加辛亥革命敢死队,卢君不负重任,乃选拔十二人,由罗校长率领到广州,参加广州起义英勇牺牲,成为广州黄花岗七十二烈士之一)

The squad then went to Hong Kong in January 1911. While in Hong Kong, Luo Zhong Huo's wife visited him with his son. But he tried to avoid the meeting, even despite they have not meet for 10 years when Luo was in Nanyang. This reflected his firmness to revolution, and family now was secondary to him, a revolutionist.

During the action in Huanghuakang uprising on 29th March 1911, Luo was injured and caught by the Manchu Army, and was killed when he refused to surrender.

Luo died at the age of 30 years, relatively young.

This was what he wrote to members of Tongmenhui, when he was departing from Penang:



Another poem from Luo, while he was looking at night view from Penang Chinese Town Hall at Pitt Street. I hope I can translate for you;

夜雨有怀 丙午在槟榔屿平章馆楼上晚眺有感(作者:罗仲霍)


Further reading:
1.Huanghua Gang Commemoration Park,
2. 中國電影之父-黎民偉, youtube
3. 回来了!烈士后人祖居祭英雄, 金羊网 2005-11-23 15:12:58
4. 辛亥革命烈士罗仲霍遗诗首次展示,
5. 《槟榔屿孔圣庙中华中小学庆祝创校百周年纪念特刊(1904-2004)》,陈剑虹, 页14至18
6. 火水山中华学校与华侨总会沧桑岁月,
7. 尊孔国民型中学,

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