Thursday, November 18, 2010

Dr Sun Yat Sen's historic Penang conference

Saturday November 13, 2010

Dr Sun Yat Sen's historic Penang conference

IN November 1910, the Chinese revolutionary Dr Sun Yat Sen was in many ways a disappointed and desperate man – a persona non grata, banned from Japan and in exile from China for 15 years.

He had relied much on raising funds successfully in the United States, but factional infighting within the Tongmengui caused him to turn to the overseas Chinese in Malaya (Nanyang).

He came to Singapore in July, but found that his support there was weak. He decided to move to Penang on July 19, where his key supporters, Wu Shirong (Goh Say Eng) and Huang Jingqing (Ng Kim Kheng) enthusiastically welcomed him.

In the five months in Penang, before he was expelled from the Straits Settlement by the British colonial government in December 1910, Dr Sun gathered his key supporters together, including his brother Sun Mei, Huang Xin, Hu Hanming and Wang Jingwei, to raise funds for his revolutionary work, change the Tongmenhui constitution and also founded the oldest Chinese newspaper overseas, the Kwong Wah Yit Poh.

He needed at least 100,000 Straits dollars, and in the end he raised nearly one-third from Canada, one-quarter from British Malaya and Singapore and the rest from Dutch East Indies, Siam and Indochina. Only one-eighth of the funding came from the United States.

On Sunday, Nov 12, 1910, his birthday, he convened the famous Penang Conference to plan the Second Guangzhou Uprising. Before that, he was almost in despair.

"I have written so many letters and have gotten no support. I have failed in all eight uprisings. There appears to be little hope for the Revolution. But the people of Penang provided me with protection and collected money for the ninth and successful uprising."

Most people do not realise that Qing Dynasty reformers found support and help from overseas Chinese in British Malaya. For example, after the failure of the Hundred Days' Reform Movement in 1898, Kang Youwei escaped and stayed in Penang from Aug 9, 1900 to Dec 7, 1901.

He left behind a four-character epigraph carved in stone at Kek Lok Si Temple in Penang, which stated "don't forget the motherland" dated June 29, 1903.

There were two reasons why there was such overseas support for reforms in China. First, the overseas Chinese who found their fame and fortune in Malaya and South-East Asia (Nanyang) were mostly refugees who escaped poverty and corruption in China.They welcomed change in China.

Second, the British government was interested in helping reform in China to further its trade interests. Dr Sun came to Penang probably five times – the first in 1906, shortly after he founded the Singapore branch of the Tongmenhui.

By 1910, the revolutionary cause was on a knife's edge. Dr Sun had out run of friends, barred from nearly all countries in the region, pursued by the Qing government and his family was forced to leave Hong Kong by the British administration.

In Burma, the Tungmenghui had been declared illegal. When he arrived in Singapore, his wealthy supporters were tired of pressure from the growing influence of the Manchu government overseas and some doubted his ability to overthrow the Manchu regime.

Because Dr Sun's ideas appealed mostly to the petty traders and the working class, the conservative Chinese lobbied the British to outlaw the Tungmenghui.

Finally in 1910, pressure was so intense in Singapore that Dr Sun decided to move the Tungmenghui Nanyang headquarters to Penang. Thus, it was Penang that offered the Tungmenghui and the Sun family both sanctuary and respite during the darkest period of the Revolution.

The Sun family had the opportunity to re-unite when Sun Mei, Dr Sun's older brother, arrived bringing Dr Sun's second wife, Chen Bijun and his daughters.

Although Penang was not as rich as Singapore, her Chinese community comprised both the wealthy elite who were co-opted into the Manchu bureaucracy (such as Chang Bishi), or those who supported reformists such as a parliamentary monarchy like Kang Youwei.

But Dr Sun's oratory and revolutionary zeal was able to gain his most ardent supporters in Wu Shirong (Goh Say Eng), son of a wealthy Straits-Chinese businessman, and founding chairman of the Penang Tungmenghui.

Described as a "pillar of the revolutionary movement in Malaya", Wu also founded the Penang Philomatic Union, a reading club that was the front for the Tungmenghui. Wu even sold his wife's heritage house to finance Dr Sun's cause.

In July 1910, Dr Sun had founded the Zhonghua Geming Dang (Chinese Revolutionary Party), to supercede the banned Tongmenghui.

Despite opposition from the conservative businessmen, Dr Sun's Penang supporters raised 11,000 Strait dollars and many volunteered for the "Last Battle."

In April 1911, the Guangzhou Huang Hua uprising failed when 72 martyrs were executed. Out of the 72, nearly a quarter came from Nanyang, including four from Penang. But in August, the sacrifice inspired the WuChang rebellion on Oct 10, which led to the fall of the Manchu dynasty. On Dec 29, 1911, Dr Sun was elected Republican China's first president.

The 100th anniversary of the historic Penang Conference will be celebrated by the Penang Heritage Trust with the 22nd Joint Conference of Sun Yat Sen and Soong Ching Ling Memorials.

An exhibition celebrating Dr Sun and Soong Ching Ling will also be organised at 57, Macalister Road, next to the Penang Philomatic Union. This exhibition brings to Penang a collection of Dr Sun's letters and other documents related to Penang's contribution to the making of modern China. Perhaps, most significant of all, the Sun family will be having a reunion in Penang.

Visitors to Penang will be able to see the schools and newspaper that Dr Sun helped founded and the buildings where the historic revolutionary plans were hatched.

Penang is where I now live, because it has its history immersed in China, India, the Middle East and trade in the old Malacca empire.

Today, Penang has been awarded the Unesco World Heritage site and is also a growing reputation as the best hidden gourmet secrets in Asia, hosted in historic buildings. I welcome you to visit on this historic occasion.

● Tan Sri Andrew Sheng is adjunct professor at Universiti Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, and Tsinghua University, Beijing. He has served in key positions at Bank Negara, the Hong Kong Monetary Authority and the Hong Kong Securities and Futures Commission, and is currently a member of Malaysia's National Economic Advisory Council. He is the author of the book From Asian to Global Financial Crisis.


SUN YAT SEN’S birthday anniversary on 12 November was celebrated by millions throughout the world. The following weekend in November, delegates from more than 30 Sun Yat Sen and Soong Ching Ling museums and memorial sites will have their 22nd Joint Conference in Penang, the first time outside of China. They will be part of the International Centennial Celebrations of Sun Yat Sen's 1910 ‘Penang Conference’ which the Malaysian Prime Minister Dato' Seri Mohd Najib Tun Razak has agreed to launch.


The 22nd Joint Conference of the Sun Yat Sen and Soong Ching Ling Memorials in conjunction with the International Centennial Celebrations of Sun Yat Sen's 1910 "Penang Conference"

* Exhibition: 12 November 2010 to 17 February 2011 at 57 Macalister Road
* Conference: 19-22 November 2010 at City Bayview Hotel

Exhibition on Sun Yat Sen, Soong Ching Ling and Southeast Asia

* Date & venue: 12 November 2010 to 17 February 2011 at the new Penang State Museum premises (former Maternity Hospital), Macalister Road, Penang
* Organised by Min Sin Seah, supported by the Penang State Government
* Launching at 10am, Saturday 13 November 2010 by YB Wong Hon Wai representing the Chief Minister of Penang, at 57 Macalister Road
* This exhibition will introduce the memorials sites of Sun Yat Sen and Soong Ching Ling. Part of the exhibition will highlight the importance of Dr. Sun Yat Sen and his movement in the history of Penang and Malaysia, including their contributions in Chinese education, the Chinese press as well as social and political movements.

22nd Joint Conference of Sun Yat Sen and Soong Ching Ling Memorials

* Date & venue: 19-22 November at Bayview Hotel Georgetown, Penang
* The memorials network and joint conference were inaugurated in 1989 and now includes more than 40 organisations around the world. In November 2010, the Joint Conference will take place in Penang, Malaysia – its first meeting outside of China. It will be hosted by the Sun Yat Sen Penang Base, which has been the sole Malaysian member of the Joint Conference since 2005. More than 30 museums and memorials from eight cities in China, as well as from Japan, Taiwan, Singapore, Malaysia and the Philippines, will be converging for this event.

Grand launch of the 22nd Joint Conference of the Sun Yat Sen and Soong Ching Ling Memorials in conjunction with the International Centennial Celebrations of Sun Yat Sen's 1910 "Penang Conference"

* Date & venue: 10am, 20 November 2010 at Grand Ballroom, Bayview Hotel Georgetown
* Organised by the Joint Committee of the International Centennial Celebrations
* The Malaysian Prime Minister, Dato' Seri Mohd Najib Tun Razak, has agreed to officate the launch of the conference. It will be a historic occasion for Penang and Malaysia, attended by the international delegates representing the Sun Yat Sen and Soong Ching Ling memorials, and the direct descendants of Sun Mei and Dr Sun Yat Sen, as well as the Penang and Malaysian public.

Public talk: Inaugural Penang Story Lecture by Professor Wang Gungwu

* Date & venue: 11.30am, 20 November 2010 at Grand Ballroom, Bayview Hotel Georgetown
* Organised by Think City Sdn Bhd and Penang Heritage Trust
* In his lecture “Sino-Western Penang Responses”, Wang Gungwu will look discuss the early phases of Penang’s globalisation, through the encounters of personalities such Dr Sun Yat Sen and Ku Hung Ming. Professor Wang Gungwu is the Chairman of the East Asian Institute, National University of Singapore. He is also Emeritus Professor of the Australian National University. Professor Wang is widely recognised as the "doyen of overseas Chinese historical scholarship".

International Symposium on Sun Yat Sen, Soong Ching Ling and Southeast Asia

* Date & venue: 8.00am to 4.30pm, 21 November 2010 at Wawasan Open University, Jalan Sultan Ahmad Shah, Penang
* Co-organised by Wawasan Open University
* This symposium will bring together 15-20 scholars to talk about Sun Yat Sen and Soong Ching Ling, their life and contributions and their impact on Southeast Asia. Descendants of the Sun family will also talk about Sun Yat Sen and his family. Another focus will be on the 1910 "Penang Conference", and its significance for the history of China.

Sun Yat Sen Heritage Trail, George Town World Heritage Site

* Developed by the Penang Heritage Trust, supported by Think City Sdn Bhd
* Launching on Saturday 20 November 2010 at 120 Armenian Street, Penang
* As a legacy of this conference, we will establish a Penang Sun Yat Sen Heritage Trail, which will consist of at least 10 historical sites in Penang associated with Dr Sun Yat Sen and his followers. This heritage trail will be a new tourism product targeting the China and Taiwan markets and packaged with airlines worldwide.

Organised by Sun Yat Sen Penang Base, Min Sin Seah, Penang Heritage Trust, Penang Chinese Town Hall, Taipei Investors in Malaysia Association, Malaysia, The Federation of Alumni Association of Taiwan Universities, Wawasan Open University, Chung Ling High School Alumni Association, Penang Zhongshan Association, Penang Philomatic Union, Penang Tourist Guide Association, Equator Academy of Art, Vision Academy, Malaysia.


Recently there is a conflict between two group of people on Penang, the conflict was derived from the role of Chen Cuifen, played in Dr Sun Yat-sen's life; one camp was saying she was the wife, and will focus on the role and to show the movie. The other camp said that Chen Cuifen was only used as hidden role as a companion of Dr Sun Yat-sen, this is to facilitate his activities in Penang, as a family man. The arrangement will protect him from the colonial government's attention, and protect him from the Manchu. To show the film is a disrespect to the official wife of Dr Sun Yat-sen, Madam Song Ching Ling. I hope these two camps will work together for the benefit of Penang tourism and heritage. There is no reason why they cannot work together.

Related articles:

1. Perak's former tin mining towns linked to Sun Yat-sen, by FOONG THIM LENG, The Star omline dated 15-11-2010,

Thursday, November 11, 2010

The top international tourism destinations in 2009

Malaysia - The top 9th ranking in the world

In the recent released World Tourism Rankings in April 2010, Malaysia is ranked No 9 for The top international destinations in 2009. The top in the ranking being France, followed by United State, and Spain. The top Asian ranking is China, at the 4th ranking, followed by Italy, UK, Turkey, Germany, followed by Malaysia, the 9th ranking and the 2nd ranking for Asia. The 10th ranking is Mexico.

I was totally surprised that Malaysia even ranked higher than Thailand, it is an achievement for Malaysia. But Malaysia is not ranked in the top 10th for the international tourism receipts or tourism revenue. That means we have the number of tourist arrivals, but the expenditure of tourists in Malaysia is not relative to its tourist arrivals ranking. Malaysia is not ranked for top 10 countries. The total tourist arrival for Malaysia in 2009 was 23.6 Million, a positive growth rate of 7.2%(2008: 22.1 Million, 2007: 21 million)

In 2008, we are not in the top 10th ranking, mainly because of economic crisis. The tourist arrival for Malaysia in past 5 years however was in positive growth trends since 2000. Congratulation to all people who are in tourism industry.

The World Tourism rankings are compiled by the United Nations World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) as part of their World Tourism Barometer publication, which is released three times throughout the year. In the publication World tourism in ranked both by number of visits and by tourism revenue generated.


Who are the top tourism money spenders, they are Germany, United State, United Kingdom, China, France, Italy, Japan,Canada, Russia and Netherlands. These are the countries that the tourism money come from. Our marketing focus should be on the countries. The emerging economies from the BRIC countries Brazil(54%), Russia(26%) and China(22%), are posting the stronger growth among the major spenders, the international tourists arrivals is back to pre-crisis peak level (Oct 2010, UNWTO).

I wonder what is the figure for Penang and Malacca; so that the state government and federal government will put a stop to the verbal war on the statistic of tourist arrivals. Federal Government and State government should work together for the benefit of the people. Past figure is dead, merely data. The action of the government to improve tourism destination and to develop new tourism products in the state are the most important. Penang is suffering from few new tourism products in the state, the state should take the advantage of its position as an island, heritage buildings and food destination to attract tourists. It is a fact that Penang received less expenditure from federal fund compared to Malacca due to political reason, state government being ruled by opposition. But the tourism project is for the future, not for the present. A responsible government will not be short sighted to play politic on the issue.

By not inviting a state Chief Minister or his representative for the function by a federal minister in soft-launch ceremony to unveil the service's new Swiss-made coaches. The action has reflected the friction between the two governments. It was an open show of disrespect to the state of Penang. The state tourism project is not a party project, it is a federal project, the Chief Minister representing people of Penang should be invited. Otherwise it is a disrespect to Penang people, and the Chief Minister. This is protocol which a federal minister should know. An appeal to the government not to play political game on state or people issue....the political inclination should not be a criteria for decision or policy; the main deciding factor should be the people...not political party.

There are work to be done, and need to be done.....we have not done much for Penang, for tourism, for heritage conservation, for product innovation....I hope the politician will stop all the verbal war, and bureaucratic talk...

Despite the figure and the ranking, we are still no done enough, we can do it better. Penang is still not living up to its tourism potential, there is no change on the tourism destination in Penang, we still depended on food tourism, UNESCO Heritage status did not really boost our tourism, as there are many things remained undone. We still need effort to improve further.

Penang should be in tourism world map; a global player in tourism.....

Related articles

1.RM69mil hill railway to be managed by Penang govt ,
2. UNWTO World Tourism Barometer ;

Wednesday, November 10, 2010

Patriotism and military service

Defence Minister Ahmad Zahid Hamidi had listed four reasons why non-Malays were not interested in military service. One of the reasons was that non-Malays were “not patriotic”. He made the statement in Dewan Rakyat on 9-11-2010.

Being a non-politician, non-minister, non-academician, and non-lawyer. The statement made me ponder am I patriotic?

According to wikipedia's defination, "Patriotism is a love and devotion to one's country. It has had different meanings over time and its meaning is highly dependent upon context, geography, and philosophy. It is a related sentiment to nationalism, but nationalism is not necessarily an inherent part of patriotism. The English term patriot is first attested in the Elizabethan era, via Middle French from Late Latin (6th century) patriota "fellow countryman", ultimately from Greek patriōtēs "fellow countryman".

As an ordinary citizen, patriotism to me, is to love the country, to love the fellow countryman. It is simple as that. The level of patriotism is subjective, patriotism can be developed from small, in school, at home. Patriotism can come out at the emotional outburst or gradually developed with time. In short term it is loyalty to the state or nation.

Patriotism was at time referred to loyalty to religion , when the religion or nation was one entity. Patriotism may be strengthened by adherence to a national religion,especially when there is no separation of church and state. This patriotism may resulted in abuse of power by religion institution, and religion fanatic, and even religion militarism. In a religion country, patriotism is loyalty to religion, which is identify with nationalism.

Some people referred patriotism to the ruling party of the nation, especially the communist country, one-party ruled country. Patriotism is loyalty to the ruling party, which identified with nationalism. This may happen when one party had been ruling the country for too long or when the opposition is weak, the arrogant of the ruling party has developed into the perception that the ruling party is the nation, a support of opposition is perceived as not patriotic or low patriotism.

Patriotism in a military country is loyalty to the military regime, joined the military forces or support the military rule.

What is patriotism in a democracy country? Democracy is a political form of government in which governing power is derived from the people, either by direct referendum (direct democracy) or by means of elected representatives of the people (representative democracy). The term comes from the Greek: δημοκρατία – (dēmokratía) "rule of the people". A democratic nation is the nation that is ruled by the people, for the people. But today democracy has become a majority ruled democracy, when the minority's view was seen as irrelevant. Democracy is not only representative of the people, the majority; but also the respect of the minority views. Socrates said , "Democracy, which is a charming form of government, full of variety and disorder, and dispensing a sort of equality to equals and unequaled alike.".

Democracy should be for respect of diversity and differences; but not absolute democracy where the liberty to do anything even allow for extreme which will destroy a fellow human being. A Chinese scholar trained in the western philosophy once said "Democracy is demon go crazy". That may be true for absolute democracy....So patriotism in democracy is a respect of diversity, even the opposition views....

Military service, in its simplest sense, is service by an individual or group in an army or other militia, whether as a chosen job or as a result of an involuntary draft (conscription). Some nations (e.g. Mexico & Singapore) require a specific amount of military service from each and every one of its citizens (except for special cases such as physical or mental disorders or religious beliefs). A nation with a fully volunteer military does not normally require mandatory military service from its citizens, unless it is faced with a recruitment crisis during a time of war.(source: wikipedia). In Malaysia, there is no national military service, military service is a chosen job.

If military service is a chosen job; under a democratic country there is no compulsive to force the citizen to become a soldier; the nation will through education or provide incentives to attract the citizen to the job. Some country provide scholarship to attract the best brains to the military service; provide better remuneration package e.g accommodation and other incentives, allowances or privileges for the military men. Unless in war, where a democratic country may activate some national law to require the service of able man as soldiers to defense the country. Unlike some western countries, they also called for their young citizen to the military service for wars in other countries, like American in Vietnamese War, Iraq; which may be legal requirement of the nation. Not to enroll as soldier for job is not an act of non-patriotism or low patriotism, but running from the compulsory national military service or a commissioned soldier deserted from the army is an act of military offense and may subject to court martial(military court) , and ultimately punishment. A court-martial is empowered to determine the guilt of members of the armed forces subject to military law, and, if the defendant is found guilty, to decide upon punishment.

As a Defence Minister, En Ahmad Zahid Hamidi should be careful on his words; not only Non Malay, Malay with tertiary education and good job prospect may not opted for military or police job. The choice of military service or police as career, is the democratic choice of the citizen, it is their basic human right. Unless they are interested in uniform, otherwise many will not enter the military service. There are many reasons why the Non-Malay has no interest to be soldiers, some is due to religion, some religion prohibit military service, even national service. Some is due to culture, military service or any uniform service may not be consider the choice of some community, as they have priority on other alternatives. Some due to their physical condition, as they will not meet the requirement physically. Looking at some countries, the military service will attract young people from the rural areas or the less educated, especially for lower rank military services. As Malaysian are becoming more educated, their choice of careers have increased, they have other better choices, the numbers left for the military service will be limited. This is the trends for many countries.

So what is it to do with patriotism or races?.....

I still remember there are still many non-Malay military men or policemen before the independence, during the colonial days. The Sikh people even have their regiment in the police force. But why there is less Indian now in the military service?. The government should seek for the reasons, and not simply put a remark that is unfounded.

"low patriotism”; Non-Malays are not patriotic enough. All these statement are irresponsible and racist remarks. As a national leader, and especially under the spirit of One Malaysian, the remark is hurting not only to non-Malay, but also to all citizen who are not in military service, as they are now considered as less patriotic by their national leader, or considered as not patriotic enough, or with low patriotism...... what a sad comment from a national leader. Then, please tell us how to be patriotic?.... should we all join the military forces and turn Malaysia into a military country like Burma?....

It is an insult to other patriotic people, who have contributed to the nation, one way or another. Patriotism can be in many forms, not necessary only in uniform. Is the Minister of Defense less patriotic for not in the military service, but become a politician?....

I have the right to speak as I am from the military/police family. My father was a policeman, my uncle were military men during the Emergency and Confrontation, now their children are not in the military service, do you considered the family members of the early military men less patriotic than their fathers?.....Their father are fighting for the nation, and their children are considered as less patriotic? how about the contribution of their children in the economic development of the nation? and their contribution by faithfully paying taxes to support the civil services and national budget(which included the military forces)...please tell us how the country defined Patriotism?

Is the act of corruption and wastage of national fund and people's money, more patriotic to the nation? or an act of inequality more patriotic to the nation? Is there double standard in patriotism, or a nation within a nation in policy? A "patriot's nation" within a Malaysian nation....Tell me who are the patriot?....

Patriotism is from the heart, from the act; not from the mouth; especially from a government servants who can't even know how to fly a national flag properly or keep the national flag clean.....

It is also sad that some even do not admit they are Malaysian, they still cherish the old days of Malayan, or specific religion, or specific race; but not Malaysia as nation, not Malaysian as fellow citizen. They cannot accept the diversity in Malaysia. If they cannot identify with Malaysia, are they patriotic?....

It will be better if the national leaders will be less racist, playing less politic, and talk less bureaucratic language, all these remarks are the "less patriotic remarks" to the people,as it creates more confusion, and chaos in the mind of the people. The act of the national leader is not patriotic if they are only serving a specific community, a specific political party when they are voted by people as federal leader, as leader of the nation. If they did that, they failed as Malaysian, and failed their duty as a leader, a Malaysian leader....

Ask what you have done for the nation, and not other have done for the nation....A Malaysian leader is for all Malaysian, one Malaysia, and for multi-racial, multi religion Malaysia, and for Malaysia in diversity.....and that is patriotism....and a patriotic leader....he truly represented all Malaysian, served all Malaysian... regardless of skin color, religion and political inclination, that is the role and duty of patriotic leader to the nation.

When you are elected as a leader, and appointed as federal minister, you lost the identity of individual, community, political party in the official capacity. You represented Malaysia, a nation of multi-racial and multi-religion country. It is high time the national leader re-visited the history lesson of nation formation, and know their role as national leader, and understand the meaning of a country , Malaysia as a nation....not as a community or as political party.....

Sunday, November 7, 2010


中国人民解放军海南将领陈青山(b 1919 – d 2003)



  陈青山原名荣火。兄弟五人,他最小。荣火出世不久,父亲就带上荣火的大哥去马来亚的梹城做苦力。荣火四岁那年,即1923年,闽南一带瘟疫流行,在家的三个哥哥接连病死,接着妈妈因经受不起接二连三的打击,离开了人世。父亲闻讯赶回故乡,看到家 庭惨状,悲痛地抱上可怜的小荣火踏上了开往马来半岛的小油轮。

  在黑暗的旧中国,人民处于水深火热之中,漂泊异域的华侨,命运更加悲惨。荣火的父亲是黄包车 夫,起早贪黑,拼死拼活地干,也养活不了自己和两个儿子,无奈只好把大哥送回国内务农。可怜的大哥回国不久就病故了。从此,一家七口人就剩下父子俩在槟城 相依为命。为了养家糊口,父亲在洋人的喝骂声中,在阔人的鄙视之下,如牛似马地拉车载客。荣火到九岁那年。父亲有了一点积蓄,找了个继母成了家,开了个咖啡铺子。为了不让孩子再象自己一样受苦,他省吃俭用,把儿子送入私塾读书。艰难的时世人早熟。荣火知道自己读书不易,在学校格外用功,学习成绩在全班中名 列前茅。梹城陈氏祠堂的董事长陈汉文看到荣火有培养前途,提出由祠堂资助读书。父亲便把他从私塾转到中华中学就读。到l935年,荣火十六岁,以优异的成 绩从中华中学的高小毕业。陈氏宗祠又把他送去马来亚著名的钟灵中学继续攻读。

  还是在荣火读小学时候,日本帝国主义就公然出兵侵占了我国的东三省,爆发了震惊世界的“九• 一八” 事变。消息传来,马来半岛广大华侨的抗日呼声如洪涛怒吼,此伏彼起。尤其是“七•七”卢沟桥事变后,华侨各界抗日救国的浪潮就更为高涨了。钟灵中学进步学 生陈文庆等,最先响应“马来亚梹城各界华侨抗敌后援会” 的号召,与梹城各中学联系,成立了“梹城学生抗敌后援会” 。他们积极开展抗日救亡宣传,走上街头,演街头剧,唱抗日歌曲,组织义演义卖活动,积极筹款支援祖国抗战。陈荣火进入钟灵中学后很快就投身到抗日救国的洪 流中去。他爱读书,又爱体育活动,一进钟灵中学就成了读书会的活跃分子,还是钟灵中学校乒乓球队的主力队员。他和同学们一起,以开展各种文体活动做掩护, 四处串联,宣传抗日。学校“抗敌后援会”的负责人、学校的马共党支部书记陈文庆见荣火家庭出身贫苦,抗日热情很高,为人诚实,办事灵活,就有意把他作为骨 干来培养,经常把一些进步书刊送给他看,给他讲中国几千年的文明历史,讲岳飞,文天祥的爱国故事,共同探讨人生的意义,祖国的前途和世界的未来。荣火深受 感动.渐渐意识到,一个人活着就要心系祖国,胸怀大志,为国为民甘洒热血,这才是人生的真正价值。

  从此,他更加闯劲十足,凡是自己认准了的事情就拼命去干。只要“抗敌后援会”一有任务交给 他,他就认真执行,那怕是不吃饭,不睡觉也要千方百计地干好,因此经常得到领导的赞扬。。陈荣火在与陈文庆等接近过程中,还渐渐认识到共产党的性质。共产 党带领广大人民群众为祖国、为民族的解放事业前仆后继,英勇斗争。这一切在他心里产生了深刻影响。渐渐地产生了要做一名共产党员为革命事业英勇奋斗的强烈 愿望。1936年初的一天,陈文庆向荣火介绍了北平地下党领导的“一二九”学生爱国运动壮举。荣火听后情不自禁地抓住陈文庆的手说:“我要是能够回到祖 国,做一个冲锋陷阵的共产党员就好啰!” 陈文庆对他说:“在海外你也是同样可以献身祖国的抗日斗争事业的。”陈文庆还表示自己愿意介绍他入党。同年三月初,荣火光荣地成为一名共产党员。

  抗战爆发后,组织上让荣火负责学校的抗敌后援会和全梹城学生抗敌后援会的工作,不久又让他担 任“梹城各界抗敌后援会” 的领导工作。l938年间他代表梹城学生到新加坡参加全马“学抗" 代表会议,当选为全马学抗常委,分工主持北马(梹城、吡叻、吉打、三大洲)学抗的领导工作,并担任马共梹城市委常委。荣火肩负重任,更加紧张地忙碌于华侨 的抗日救亡活动。但却遭到马来西亚英国殖民当局的镇压。一天晚上,几个侦探闯进了陈荣火的家,翻箱倒柜,在一只小皮箱中搜到了几张《五四宣言》,便把荣火逮捕了。在审讯中当局强令他交代组织情况和领导人姓名,陈荣火推说小皮箱是一个过路的客人存放的,不知里面有什么东西。经过七八天的反复追问,英国殖民当 局找不到什么证据只好把他释放。
  经过那次折腾,父亲病倒了,而且病情日见严重,一些好心的邻居都来劝荣火少管社会上的“闲事 ”,让父亲过几天舒心的日子。荣火看着父亲惟悴的面容,心里也十分难过。但是,他又想,我们从事革命斗争,正是为了千千万万象父亲一样的受苦人啊! 父亲的病要治,但自己肩上的担子也不能放下。于是,他一面继续劝说安慰父亲和亲朋,一面继续参加斗争。在马共梹城市委的领导下,梹城的学生抗日救亡运动蓬 勃发展,大多数学生都投入这一热潮。学校当局极力阻止学生参加抗日救亡活动,并勾结英国殖民当局准备加以镇压。荣火作为学生领导骨干被列入了黑名单。组织 上为了保存抗日救亡骨干,决定把他调到新加坡从事职工运动。当时,他眼看父亲快不行了,感到这时离开父亲于心不忍,但是他又想,个人的事情再大也没革命工 作重要。这时,敌人追捕他的风声一阵紧似一阵,组织上催他快点离开并表示一定会想法多关照他的父亲;他的好朋友谢成业也答应为他父亲治病和帮他处理后事。 在这种情况下,他毅然踏上了新的征途。到新加坡不久,就听到了父亲的病逝恶耗,为了革命,荣火强忍悲痛,没为老父送终。

  1940年1月,陈荣火担任了星洲总工会宣传部长、马来亚总工会《前锋报》主编,不久又担任 总务(主持人),化名陈青山。就在这一年,国内的抗日战争已进入战略相持阶段。在日寇的威胁利诱下,国民党顽固派不断制造反共逆流。马来亚殖民当局也在打 击镇压当地抗日救亡运动。为了紧密配合国内的抗日斗争,抗议英国殖民当局的镇压,马共新加坡市委领导各界工人和爱国华侨、青年学生开展了大规模的罢工和罢 课斗争。反对英殖民当局的倒行逆施。5月1日,陈青山担任总指挥,组织和率领成千上万的工人和学生举行声势浩大的示威游行。英国殖民当局害怕引起殖民地人 民的觉醒,便疯狂地进行镇压,逮捕了大批马共党员及其同情者、爱国华侨、职工和青年学生,送进监狱或驱逐出境。陈青山和江田亦遭逮捕。陈青山和江田都被反 复审问拷打,仍一口咬定自已是失业青年,寄居于一位经商的朋友家里,没有暴露自己的身份。殖民当局没有得到什么证据,只好以马共嫌疑分子的罪名判处陈青山 和江田半年徒刑,关进监狱。

  在狱中,他们见到了马共中央负责人杨少民、张理等二十多位同志。在杨少民的组织领导下,监狱 里建立了临时党支部,采取各种办法进行斗争,迫使监狱取消了一些虐待犯人的规定,改善犯人生活条件,同时组织难友学习政治和锻炼身体,为迎接出狱后更加严 酷的斗争准备。杨少民出狱后,由陈青山接任支部书记,继续组织领导难友们坚持斗争。他在狱中利用各种形式坚持锻炼身体。通过学习和锻炼,思想提高了,身体 也健壮了,这就为他们日后奔向祖国抗战前线打击日本侵略创造了有利条件。


  1941年初,陈青山等被押送至香港。此时正是“皖南事变”不久。陈青山按照马共中央交代的联 络暗号给联络点写信,但联系不上(事后才知道,南方局派出的联络员由于戒严来不了)。不久,国民党当局来人,将他们强行接送到乐昌县一个“华侨训练班”训 练。口头上说是关怀他们,经训练后给予安置,以免他们流离失所。实际上要对他们加以控制,从中清查共产党员,以便收买或迫害。

  陈青山等被送至乐昌华侨训练班后,遇见了前两批被驱逐出境后亦被送来训练班的马共党员曹桂亲、梁球等同志。经曹等介绍情况后,了解到“华侨训练班” 的性质,以及第一批被驱逐出境的杨少民等已在押送途中脱险现转移到湛江等情况。经研究,他们决定找寻机会逃出虎口。

  半个月后的一个星期天,陈青山江田等四人借“训练班” 放假让“学员”到乐昌县城玩耍的机会,趁监视人不备,跑到乐昌汽车站,登上了前往韶关的汽车,从而冲出了牢笼。后来,他们再经桂林辗转到了湛江,终于找到 了杨少民、张理等同志。这时,杨少民张理等已接上了组织关系,并奉命到琼崖参加抗日,现正候船前往。陈青山向他们汇报了前一段的经历,同时写了一份有关材 料请杨少民转送组织。不久,经南方局审查批准,陈青山等亦恢复了组织关系。组织还决定陈青山、江田等同志均由杨少民、张理负责介绍到琼崖工作。



  陈青山等同志抵达琼崖后,受到了琼崖特委书记兼琼崖抗日独立总队总队长冯白驹、副总队长庄田、 参谋长李振亚等领导人的热烈欢迎与亲切接待。冯白驹还勉励他们为海南人民的革命斗争和今后华侨工作做出贡献。陈青山等受到很大的鼓舞,增强了参加海南斗争 的光荣感、责任感。不久,杨少民被分配到特委组织部任副部长;陈青山分配到总部宣传科当科员;其他同志都做了适当安排。对陈青山来说,到海南工作是从地下 秘密斗争转入公开武装斗争,从城市生活转入农村生活,是个很大的转折,他深知必须认真学习,刻苦锻炼。从此,他一心扑在海南人民的革命事业上,在革命的道 路上闯过了一道又一道难关,留下了一个个光辉的足迹。

  为了使自己尽快在海南扎下根,陈青山认真学习海南话;没多久,就学会了用海南方言跟人对话, 还可以用海南方言给大家讲课。他为了尽快地熟悉部队机关工作,孜孜不倦地学习,不厌其烦地向首长和同志们请教,很快就熟悉了部队宣传工作的基本业务。一个 多月后,宣传科长吴乾鹏他调,由陈青山接任宣传科长,并协助总队参谋长李振亚创办了一份《军政杂志》。对军政人员进行宣传教育。11月间,琼崖抗日独立总 队在大水和斗门一带,进行了反击国民党顽固派制造“反共灭独”阴谋的战斗,在战斗过程中,陈青山组织宣传队的人员认真做好战地宣传鼓动工作,收到了很好效 果。l942年初,陈青山调任组织科长。当时独立总队已恢复了政委制度。为了贯彻毛泽东同志关于支部建在连上的指示,加强党的工作,陈青山奉命负责举办党 支部书记训练班。(前后共办了三期)。从各连队中抽调一些政治表现好,工作能力强的小队长(排长)、文化教员参加学习,每期约三四十人,培训后派到各个连 队担任专职党支部书记。陈青山主持这一工作过程中,工作十分积极负责,处处以身作则,言传身教。不少干部经过训练班的培训,再经过部队实际工作的锻炼,后 来成了琼纵各级领导骨干,对部队政治工作建设和对敌作战都起到了积极作用。在陈青山等同志的共同努力下,琼纵的党务工作得到了加强。
  12月,侵琼日军加紧对我琼文抗日根据地进行“蚕食”和“扫荡”。国民党顽固派也同日寇互相 呼应,对我进行围攻,琼文根据地的抗日斗争进入了艰难时期。面对这一形势,琼崖特委和琼崖抗日独立总队针锋相对地作出了“坚持内线、挺出外线”的反“蚕食 ”,反“扫荡”的重要部署。领导机关进行精简,冯白驹率领总队部在演丰一带,指导全琼斗争。陈青山跟随冯白驹一起,协助他进行起草一些文件等方面的工作, 并从中得到许多教益。

  1943年5月,琼崖领导机关转移到澄迈美厚山区。这时,陈青山被任命为琼崖独立总队第四支 队政治委员。支队长是马白山。在陈青山到任前,马白山在一次战斗中负了伤。陈青山到职后,他的伤还未痊愈,不能直接指挥作战。因此陈青山既做政治工作,又 要指挥打仗。当时陈青山还没有直接指挥部队作战的经验。他决心从战争中学习,在大家的支持帮助和密切配合下。勇敢地挑起了重担。7月,第四支队侦察到在那 大至大成的洛基公路地段,经常有敌人的军车来往,决定由第一大队和猛进大队去伏击。陈青山亲自与第一大队长潘江汉和猛进大队长吴济华说:“一道指挥战斗。 ”

  一天大清早,陈青山带着两个大队去洛基公路伏击敌军车。那天天气特别炎热,晒得指战员们一个 个都汗流夹背,一直等到十一点多钟了,但还不见敌人的动静。陈青山便征求两位大队长的意见,是否把队伍撤回去。两位大队长建议再等一等。果然,不久就有日 寇两辆军车沿着蜿蜒曲折的公路开过来。狡猾的鬼子见这里山高坡陡,地形险要,便格外谨慎,还没进入埋伏圈内便下了车,分两路纵队,持枪搜索行进。潘江汉告 诉陈青山说:“这是鬼子的侦察行动,不用管他。”不出所料,敌人气势汹汹地折腾了一阵,见没有什么动静,便大摇大摆地向前走过来。当大部分敌人已走进伏击 圈时,陈青山一声令下,顿时机枪猛扫,手榴弹不断开花,打得敌人死的死,伤的伤,不到半小时,便胜利结束战斗。这一仗共击毁敌军车两辆,歼敌三十多人,缴 获手提机枪两挺,步枪三十多支。

  在此期间,国民党顽军保六团团长杨开东带领该团两个营和儋县县长王焕指挥的顽军共一千多人, 与日军的“扫荡”相呼应,从南保一带大举向我木排根据地进攻。为了打退顽军的进攻,陈青山与马白山带领部队在四行村,西南村一线还击顽军,激战两天一夜, 终于将其击溃,毙伤顽军连长以下数十人。这一仗,第四支队声威大振。以木排为中心的清平、洛基、和民、和祥等乡的抗日根据地亦由此联成一片。

  同年秋天,日寇还对我琼西抗日根据地进行”蚕食“和”扫荡”。马白山、陈青山等第四支队领导 人根据琼文反蚕食斗争的经验,作出了“坚持内线、挺出外线”的决策:由马白山支队长指挥第三大队坚持木排一带的内线斗争;由符志行,林荫森带领第二大队挺 出南丰,到纱帽岭开展斗争,建立根据地和游击区,牵制那大镇敌人;陈青山则带领潘江汉第一大队挺向儋县的外线——四里的大星、大成、南辰、雅星、和盛等乡 活动,寻机打击敌人,开辟四里根据地。

  陈青山率领部队抵达四里后,立即抽出一批指战员组成工作队,与地方干部一起宣传发动群众,打 击敌顽,建立政权,还率领部队在洛基圩附近全歼监修公路的日军一个小队,缴获轻机抢一挺,步枪十多支,打击了日寇的嚣张气焰;不久,又歼灭和驱逐了与日寇 狼狈为奸、妄图吃掉第四支队的国民党顽军游击大队,使四里成了抗日的可靠后方。在马白山,陈青山等率领下,第四支队在反“蚕食”斗争中,不仅保卫了和民、 和祥、清平、洛基等根据地,还把儋县、白沙边区扩大成为抗日游击区,建立了以大星山为中心的根据地,并为特委和总队部日后开进白沙、建立以五指山为中心的 根据地奠定了基础。

  8月,黎族人民在黎族首领王国兴领导下举行了“白沙起义”,受到国民党反动派的残酷镇压。王 国兴派出吉有理等三人辗转到了儋临边界,找到了临儋联县县委书记李汉、县长符英华和琼纵第四支队部,受到了马白山和陈青山的热情接待。他们旋即派政治处主 任江田带领吉有理等前往澄迈县六芹山会见冯白驹。为了支援黎苗族人民的斗争,冯白驹派遣一批骨干组成黎苗族人民解放团开进白沙。不久,马白山、陈青山还与 王国兴歃血结盟,并派出一些干部负责培养训练黎苗族战士。



  1946年1月中旬,琼崖特委在白沙召开特委扩大会议,分析了琼崖当前斗争形势,认为琼崖内战 已迫在眉睫,我们必须丢掉和平幻想,认真做好准备,对付国民党反动派的进攻,否则就要吃大亏。为此,会议统一了认识,克服了和平幻想,作出了争取和平、准 备自卫反击战争的决定。陈青山也参加了这个会议,完全赞成这个正确决定。为粉碎敌人的阴谋,特委还作出了具体部署:总部随挺进支队挺到澄迈一区,第一支队 经定安挺出琼文地区,第三支队挺出乐、万、陵水地区,第四支队依旧坚持在临高:儋县一带作战。陈青山被任命为(琼)东、定(安)地区临委书记兼第二支队 (先遣支队)政委,和支队长陈武英一道到琼东、定安一带,迎接新的战斗。

  1946年2月,国民党四十六军以五个团的兵力,分成四路,气势汹汹的向白沙解放区大举进 攻,妄图把琼纵领导机关和主力一举消灭在白沙县境内。琼崖内战全面爆发。但敌人进攻白沙之前,琼纵导领机关已率领挺进支队,向澄迈县六芹山转移。敌军占领 白沙之后,发现我特委和琼纵首脑机关已转移到澄迈六芹山区,立即进行新的部署,“进剿”六芹山。为策应挺进支队保卫领导机关,粉碎敌人的清剿计划,陈青 山、陈武英率领先遣支队在南渡江东岸的澄迈二区、琼山六区和定安四区<澄、琼、定边界> 敌占区,猛烈展开行动打击敌人,发动群众建立民主政权,先后攻下南闾等十多个据点,并开展强大的宣传攻势,到处演戏,演说,贴标语,以达到调虎离山的目 的。但敌人仍然盘据在澄迈一区美厚一带不动,围困琼纵总部达二十多天之久。在这种情况下,陈青山等决定进一步扩大战果,迫使敌人就范。他们一面组织部队瞅 准机会狠狠地打击敌人,一面全力摧毁敌人区乡政权,镇压土豪劣坤,建立人民政权,解放了澄迈二区,定安四区和琼山六区建立了新民县人民政,敌军惶恐不安, 应付不暇。在这种情况下,特委和总部便于一个晚上突出敌人包围,转移到南坤一带。陈青山及时找到纵队机关,向冯白驹等领导人作了汇报。冯白驹表扬了他们的 英勇表现。考虑到敌人虽接连扑空,但仍不甘心失败,必将继续跟踪追击而来。为了特委和纵队领导机关的安全,陈青山决心再一次把敌人的注意力吸引走。他不顾 连续作战的疲劳,立即带领部队直奔黄竹岭。他故意披上大衣,骑上战马行军。敌人果然上当,以为那骑马的就是冯白驹,行军队伍就是特委和纵队领导机关,因而 疯狂地跟踪追者过来,包围了方圆近十里的黄竹岭。黄竹岭山势险要,竹林茂密,荆棘丛生,是个易守难攻之地。陈青山带着一个大队,利用有利地形,以一当十, 巧妙地与敌人周旋。直到八九天之后,领导机关已转移到安全地域,他才带队突围进入岭门一带。至此,敌人企图围攻和消灭我特委,纵队部首脑机关的阴谋彻底破 产了。

  1946年4月,正当敌四十六军疯狂地进行“清剿”,琼崖纵队奋勇反击之时,南方局派人来海 南传达中央关于要琼纵北撤山东的指示。为此,特委和纵队领导决定作两手准备,一面作“北撤”准备,一面继续进行自卫反击。后来由于国民党广东当局不承认琼 崖共产党及琼崖纵队采取势在必打志在必灭的方针,企图把琼纵留在孤岛待机消灭,结果琼纵“北撤”山东未能实行。琼崖特委为了扭转“北撤” 指示传达后出现的动荡局面,发出了《继续坚持自卫斗争的决议》。陈青山坚决执行特委的决议,积极做好部队的思想工作,使指战员们的思想情绪很快稳定下来。 同年8月,广东省委派人来琼传达了关于琼纵撤往越南的指示。琼崖特委认真研究讨论了当前琼崖情况,决定暂不执行“南撤”指示。同时致电党中央报告特委对“ 南撤”问题的不同意见,提出继续在琼崖坚持斗争。党中央很快就回电琼崖特委,表示同意他们继续在琼崖坚持斗争的意见。陈青山对此事情亦表现了坚定的态度, 满怀信心地贯彻执行党中央的英明决策,继续把各项工作搞好,率领部队继续进行艰苦卓绝的战斗。

  1947年,全国的解放斗争进入了第二个年头。国民党第四十六军奉命调去山东作战,另从广东 大陆调来五个保安总队。这样一来,海南的敌我力量对比发生明显的变化。中共琼崖特委根据中共中央指示,及时向琼崖军民提出了新的战斗任务:建立一个稳固的 革命大后方,以支持人民解放战争的长期进行;放手发动和组织人民力量,配合全国性的战略进攻,干净,彻底,全部歼灭盘踞海南的国民党军队,完成解放海南向 广东南路进军的神圣事业。为此,琼崖特委把琼崖六个临委调整为东、西、南、北四个地委,实行党政军“一元化”领导,杨少民任西区地委书记,陈青山为副书 记。陈青山积极协助杨少民工作,在西区开展土改运动,为巩固和扩大西区解放区作了大量工作。

  1947年10月21日,中央军委决定将广东省琼崖游击队独立纵队命名为中国人民解放军琼崖 纵队。l948年初,陈青山奉命调到琼纵任政治部副主任兼组织部长。陈青山主持政治部工作期间,在强调学习野战军的政治工作经验,提高纵队指战员的政治思 想素质等方面,做了许多工作。是年秋,特委任命陈青山为东区地委书记兼琼纵第三总队政委。

  例如秋季攻势开始后,为给部队输送骨干力量,陈青山利用战斗间隙,办起各种训练班,培养和训练 干部。他编写教材,主持讲课,把解放军自古田会议以来所形成的政治工作的光荣传统传授给各级干部。在部队开展了以诉苦、“三查” 、“三整”为主要内容的新式整军运动,对提高各级干部的政治素质,为琼纵的正规化建设作出了贡献。
  1949年10月1日,中华人民共和国宣告成立。l2月,广西战役结束后,毛泽东同志和中央 军委发出了解放海南的命令。琼崖区党委和琼纵积极准备接应和配合大军渡海作战,并决定纵队各领导同志分赴各个战场以加强第一线的领导。陈青山奉命调回琼纵 政治部任副主任。1950年3月初,陈青山奉命到第一总队加强接应作战指挥。受命之后,陈青山立刻带上一部电台赶到一总驻地,向总队长陈求光等人传达了区 党委和冯白驹的指示,经过研究作出具体布置,由九团立即派部队去西线沿海侦察敌情。与此同时,陈青山还与西区地委联系,召开地方领导同志会议,决定进一步 动员各县,各乡,各村的支前组织,全力以赴,作好接应部队渡海登陆的准备。

  根据九团的侦察了解,敌人在琼西有一个军共三万人左右,敌六十四军军部在临高的加来,敌四军 军部在儋县的那大。从儋县的海头港到白马井近百里长的海岸线上,仅有一个团防守,这是敌人防守的薄弱环节,正是登陆的最好地点。根据陈青山的报告,冯白驹 及时向解放军十五兵团提出建议,十五兵团采纳了建议,决定先由四十军派一个加强营,于三月初向白马井至海头港一线潜渡。3月1日,四十军军部和琼纵总部电 令陈青山率领部队向白马井一带隐蔽运动,准备配合接应渡海部队登陆作战。他和总队长陈求光、副政委林明率领八团、九团及总队警卫连当晚出发,经过连续三昼 夜的冒雨行军,穿过敌人的重重封锁,来到儋县丰猛村。这是个靠山临海,只有三十多户人家的小村庄,抗战时期陈青山曾率领部队在这里战斗过,对这里的地形较 熟悉,群众基础也较好,便于部队隐蔽,陈青山便决定把指挥部安排在村里,让部队在周围待命。

  8月5日下午,四十军一一八师三五二团渡海先锋营八百多人在师参谋长苟在松,团长罗绍福率领 下,乘l4艘船只由雷州半岛的灯楼角起航,乘风势向南进发,预计于6日拂晓可在排浦登陆。接到电报之后,陈青山赶忙与陈求光、辜汉东一道作出接应部署:由 九团两个营于六日凌晨发起包围排浦两侧敌人的两个据点,并阻止白马井的来援之敌,由八团两个营进至新地村的通往那大海头的公路地段,警戒由那大、海头出来 的敌人;由陈求光和八团团长伍向华、政委李恩铭率领两个营在新地村,相机行动,拂晓时直插到海边接应;指挥部由陈青山和辜汉东率八团的另一个营留在丰猛 村。
  次日破晓,海面不见动静,陈青山心里很焦急。正在这时,龟缩在碉堡中的敌人却发现了琼纵九团 部队,立即疯狂射击。九团指战员奋起还击,把敌人的嚣张气焰压了下去。天亮后,还未见渡海先锋营来。陈青山命令少数部队在海边继续观察,主力部队到附近的 新地村隐蔽待命。直至下午三时左右,忽从海边传来一阵阵激烈的枪炮声。接着就看到几架敌机在排浦上空盘旋,情况表明。渡海先锋营已经登陆了。于是接应部队 以猛虎下山的态势向海边之敌冲击,一齐向据点中的敌人开火。在渡海先锋营和接应部队的前后夹击之下,据守在排浦的敌人两个连很快被歼灭了。先锋营登陆后, 接应部队一面组织部队去船上抢救伤员,搬运弹药,一面派出部队掩护他们进入安全地带。

  3月8日,陈青山和苟在松、陈求光率领一总队及渡海先锋营转移到阜龙乡的保家村、芭蕉村一带 休整,受到根据地黎族人民热情的迎接慰问。正在这时、国民党两个师尾追而来,企图乘渡海部队立足未稳,加以消灭。为了保存实力,避敌锋芒,陈青山等当机立 断,命令九团掩护渡海部队向后山撤退。敌人扑空后把全村茅房都烧光了。敌人走后,陈青山等人立即动员干部战士,把被烧的茅房全部重建起来。3月12日,两 支部队在芭蕉村召开了胜利会师的庆祝大会。会上,陈青山宣读了中共中央华南分局、十五兵团和中共琼崖区党委,琼崖纵队部发来的嘉奖令,对第一总队接应渡海 部队胜利登陆和渡海先锋营的英勇登陆作战,给予高度的评价。

  3月19日,琼崖纵队和四十军军部分别发来电报,要陈青山和苟在松立即率部向儋县西北部的光 村挺进,准备迎接第二批渡海部队登陆。由陈青山、陈求光和苟在松等组成的琼西接应指挥部,立即进行了紧张的部署:除了由一总九团派出少数部队前往儋县的大 成、大星一带活动,以迷惑牵制敌人外,主力部队则在夜幕掩护下,直向光村方向挺进。第二天晚上,当部队到达东成地区时,发现敌一五九师一个团进驻东成以西 三公里的长坡市,驻和舍的敌人有一部份也向光村调动。陈青山马上命令部队停止前进,并用电台与四十军军部联系。军部回电告知,敌已察觉我军行动意图,已派 了两个师在东成至抱舍一带伏击。敌变我变,陈青山当即撤消了原定方案,迅速回师木排待命。

  第二天,四十军来电,说渡海部队的登陆地点改在临高县北部的临高角,要求陈青山,苟在松带领 接应部队在3月25日拂晓前赶到接应。陈青山,苟在松率领部队星夜行军,于3月24日赶到临高县城西北的高山岭附近,准备第二天接应登陆部队。然而,部队 还未喘过气来,四十军就来了电报,说因风向不对,登陆改期,这样一来,问题就严重了,因为这里是海边地势平坦,两支部队几千人马,目标很大,临高县城和加 来一带又驻有敌人重兵,一旦被敌人发现,不但部队非常被动,且会暴露我大军登陆意图,直接影响登陆任务完成;但如果部队后撤渡海部队来了就难以接应。陈青 山等与地方党政领导人一起再三考虑,认为这一带地方党织织和群众条件很好,有把握封锁消息,于是决定依靠群众,就地隐蔽,并向冯白驹作了报告。即获批准 后,部队便开进附近的八个村子,在当地党织织和群众掩护下,分散隐蔽在各家各户,或隐蔽在村边和附近的树林里。为了迷惑敌人,指挥部还派出七团一个营到澄 迈县的美厚乡一带活动,派出九团两个营向光村一带佯动,以迷惑敌人。大部队则凭着强顽的毅力,在敌人的眼皮底下整整潜伏了三天三夜。26日,四十军来电 说,登陆部队定于当天傍晚启航,第二天拂晓前可在预定地点登陆,要陈青山、苟在松等人做好接应准备。陈青山等立即命令部队按计划进入指定位置。

  27日清晨,登陆部队发来电报,说他们航行顺利,离登陆点只有一个多小时的航程了。陈青山等 人立即命令部队发起攻击,打开缺口,掩护渡海部队登陆。五点多钟天快亮时,拔除海边据点、占领滩头阵地的战斗打响了。不久,东边澄迈方向又传来一阵阵枪炮 声。经电台与四十军联系,原来渡海部队遇到风向变化和大雾,已改在澄迈玉包港一带强行登陆。指挥部立即作了几条决定:一,将情况报告纵队部,建议迅速通知 澄迈县委发动群众接应,二,立即派侦察部队沿海防向澄陆方向的部队靠拢,摸清情况。相机配合地方做好接应工作;三,这边部队就地继续战斗,拖住敌人,把敌 人兵力吸引到这边来,以减轻登陆部队的压力。到中午时分,果然敌人先后有一个师的兵力,在飞机、大炮的配合下,分三路向接应部队占领山头村庄发起猛烈进 攻。陈青山决心不惜一切代价,命令部队顽强抗击,牵制敌人、保证登陆部队在玉包港一带顺利登陆。经过一天激烈艰苦的战斗,接应部队打死打伤了几百名守敌, 自己也付出了伤亡二百多人的代价。夜幕降临了,指挥部决定留下少量部队作掩护,主力撤出了战斗,进入木排一带休整。由于接应部队在临高方向牵制了敌六十军 主力,大大减轻了登陆部队的压力,使登陆部队得以顺利地上岛。

  两批四次(包括四十三军在东北边的两次)潜渡部队登陆成功后,大大加强了我军在岛上的力量, 并取得了渡海登陆作战的经验,主力大规模登陆作战的时机已经成熟。遵照十五兵团的命令,冯白驹决定由马白山、陈青山、刘振华、陈求光、苟在松组成西路纵 队,马白山,陈青山分别任司令员、政委;苟在松刘振华为副司令、副政委,率领琼纵第一总队和四十军上岛部队赶往临高的东英、美夏沿海,负责接应四十军主力 登陆。4月16日,大规模渡海作战开始了。17日拂晓,四十军主力登陆部队六个团按预订计划,冒着敌舰和高山岭敌炮兵连的炮火袭击,在临高角一带全线登 陆。岛上接应部队在陈青山等指挥下,向临高角一带海岸的守敌发起攻击,相继攻占了美夏、昌拱、东英和高山岭,并利用高山岭敌人遗下的野炮向正在阻击我登陆 部队的船只的敌军舰轰击,敲掉了敌人岸上的碉堡,同时派出部队抢占了滩头阵地,从而为渡海部队大举登陆开辟了登陆场,保证了我渡海部队胜利登陆。两支部队 胜利会师后,兵团副司令兼四十军军长韩先楚研究,决定由马白山,陈青山,刘振华率领琼纵第一总队和三五二团二个营负责解决驻守在临高县城里一个师的敌人, 马白山,陈青山、刘振华完成了消灭临高城守敌的任务后,接着又奉命率部从中线南下,堵截向三亚溃退的残敌。

  5月1日海南岛宣告解放。5日,陈青山带着战地的硝烟,风尘仆仆地赶到海口市。冯白驹亲切地 听取他的汇报并热情地赞扬说:“任务完成得很好!” 冯白驹还告诉他,海南解放后要认真着手做好肃清残匪、建立政权、土地改革和经济建设等许多工作。果然,时隔不久,陈青山接受了带队清剿土匪的任务。



  1954年,海南军区与四十三军合编为海南军区兼四十三军后,陈青山仍任政治部副主任,在此期 间,他尊重野战部队的干部,虚心学习正规部队经验。他紧记毛泽东同志关于谦虚、谨慎、戒骄、戒躁的教导,经受了和平环境中的各种考验。他平日严格要求自 己,处处以普通一兵的身份出现,被干部战士誉为“和蔼可亲,平易近人”的好领导。他对工作要求十分严格,并且处处坚持原则,是非分明。他积极响应毛泽东同 志关于“加强防卫,巩固海南”的伟大号召,和驻岛军民一道,为加强海南的海边防建设而日夜奔波。他任劳任怨,艰苦努力,雷厉风行,出色地完成军区党委所分 配给他的工作任务。
  1955年,陈青山到中国人民解放军政治学院速成系(第一期) 学习。学制一年半。他十分珍惜这一难得的学习机会,不仅刻苦地学习马克思主义理论和毛泽东著作,并且按照理论联系实际的精神,认真研究学习部队的政治工作 经验。1957年7月,他以优秀的成绩毕业。同年,他被授予大校军衔,中华人民共和国二级独立自由勋章和二级解放勋章。

  1957年9月,陈青山调任广东省军区政治部主任。l959年,他升任海南军区副政委;不 久,被选为海南军区党委副书记、纪检会书记,分管干部、纪检兼抓民兵工作。他认真负责,积极工作、严格要求、大公无私,尤其是民兵方面的工作搞得很出色。 他提出党管武装,民兵工作列入地方党委的议事日程;武装部领导干部参加党委,民兵工作必须紧紧围绕党的中心工作;大力促进生产的主张,使民兵工作取得了显 著成效。不少海南人武干部把这个时期的工作称为民兵工作的“黄金时期”。

  1964年,中央军委授予陈青山少将军衔。l965年初,他调任广州军区政治部副主任。他始 终勤勤恳恳,兢兢业业地搞好党所分配的各项工作。他一贯以来都怀着巨大的热情从事民兵工作,大力宣传毛泽东同志的人民战争思想和民兵的战略地位,动员各级 领导抓紧民兵建设。他强调民兵工作要服从地方党委的统一领导,要围绕党的中心工作、围绕生产进行,要发动民兵为搞好经济建设作贡献。他为了掌握第一手材 料,加强民兵政治工作的针对性,经常参加各省军区召开的民兵政治工作会议,深入基层蹲点,了解情况,取得经验有针对性地指导民兵工作。他十分重视以点带面 的方式来推动全盘工作。就是在1984年即将离休之前,他还带领工作组到深圳、珠海、佛山等进行实地调查,及时写出调查报告,对加强经济特区的民兵工作起 到了很好的指导作用。

  “文化大革命”初期,陈青山负责广东省军管会政治部工作。在支左工作中,他认真执行周总理对 省管会的指示,抵制黄永胜等人挑动群众斗群众,支一派压一派的行径。黄永胜等人便以审干为借口,未经中央军委批准,私立专案将陈非法抓起来,并送至湖南来 阳关押。在长达三年多的审查中,采用逼、供、信等手段,使陈的精神和身体受到很大的折磨和损害。黄永胜等人置广州军区党委l957年已为陈的政治历史做过 的正确结论而不顾,蓄意诬陷陈为叛徒、特务,妄图将历史问题与现实问题一起清算,以加重打击。陈坚持原则,坚持斗争,表现了共产党人的革命气节。他坚信马 列主义毛泽东思想,相信党相信群众,坚持学习,冲破种种无理约束,加强锻炼身体,准备出狱后更好地为党工作。林彪反党集团被粉碎后,至l972年5月,他 才获释放,1974年4月正式恢复工作,但直至“四人帮”覆灭后,于1978年5月,才按照中央军委有关指示精神对陈做出正确结论,彻底平反,恢复名誉, 进一步确认1957年广州军区党委对政治历史所做结论是正确的,政治上是坚定的。不久他被任命为政治部党委副书记、军区纪委筹备组付组长。他一如既往地积 极工作,取得显著成绩,深受领导和同志们的好评。党的十一届三中全会后,军区领导让他主管落实政策工作。他敢于顶住各种阻力和压力。实事求是地平反了大批 冤假错案,做大批受逼害的干部获得昭雪,回到战斗岗位上来。

  1984秋,陈青山响应党中央的号召,离职休养。但他常以“老骥优枥,志在千里,烈士暮年, 壮心不已”。来勉励自己,认为自己身体尚健,壮志犹在,决心在有生之年再为党为人民贡献余热,做一番事业。为此他仍象当年那样,自觉地积极寻找自己的战斗 岗位,时刻都在准备按党和人民的需要去工作。

  鉴于他在归侨中的影响和威望,广东省侨联请他当省侨联顾问。省侨联领导原以为这个“官”太 小,不知将军是否同意担任。但陈青山却欣然从命,表示;“不在乎官大小,只要能为人民办点事不让余热化灰就行了。”不久,他被邀请参加全国侨联召开归侨代 表大会,表示要“解甲归侨”。会上当选为全国侨联委员;1990年被聘任为全国侨联顾问。此后,他还被聘为广州星马侨友会名誉会长,海南星马归侨联谊会名 誉会长等职务。他协助侨联为归侨落实政策,平反冤假错案,尤其落实归侨工龄方面做了大量工作。为了写好党史,教育后人,陈青山积极参加指导海南党史,军史 的编写工作。担任了海南党史研究委员会副主任,还担任广东人民武装斗争编写小组副组长。海南有关方面着手撰写《琼崖纵队史》时,他担任《琼崖纵队史》编写 组的顾问。他和其他琼纵老同志在审稿、定稿中坚持原则,从团结愿望出发,解决了一些有重大分歧的意见和争论,使《琼崖纵队史》在1987年顺利出版。紧接 着‘他又积极参加海南党史的编写工作。1988年海南建省,他十分拥护,并在广州发动海南同志为家乡多做贡献。他被选为振兴海南联谊会会长。他不辞劳苦, 往来奔跑,发动海外琼侨对开发海南支持和投资。陈青山虽不是海南人,但他这种热爱海南,关心海南事业的精神,深得海南人民的赞许。1988年8月他被中央军委授予一级红星勋章。

陈青山一向爱好体育活动。他身兼广州市乒乓球协会名誉主席、广州地区健力宝老年人乒乓球联谊会会长、广东省老年人体育协会顾问、省老干活动中心象棋队名誉会长、舞蹈协会名誉会长等职务,经常积极参加和组织有关体育活动,对推动体育活动的开展,作 出了贡献。由于他本人期长坚持体育锻炼,又具革命乐观主义精神,至今仍保持着一个健壮的体魄。

(source: unknown)

Friday, November 5, 2010

You will never go hungry in Penang?

Penang Homeless People

Poor people are defined as the people who are having poverty, without having the ability to meet their basic human needs of clean water, nutrition, health care, education, clothing and shelter,because they cannot afford them. This is referred to as absolute poverty, relative poverty is however the condition of having fewer resources or less income than others within a society or country, or compared to worldwide averages. So the poor in USA is poor in the country, but relatively richer than the poor in India. But recently there was another type of poverty, the urban poverty which was the result of excessive spending over their basic income, over usage of credit cards, and excessive borrowing from banks......

Homelessness is the condition and social category of people without a regular house or dwelling because they cannot afford, or are otherwise unable to maintain regular, safe, and adequate housing, or lack "fixed, regular, and adequate nighttime residence."

Street people are the segment of the homeless who spend substantial periods of time on the streets in urban areas. The actual legal definition varies from country to country, or among different entities or institutions in the same country or region. Some of the street people are old aged people without young relatives to take care or provide accommodation, others are mentally ill who just wonder around, yet there are others who volunteer to be street people due to their family problems or social problem e.g. drug addicts.....

Is it because of the repel of the Rent Control Act, without providing them the alternative accommodation or low cost houses; that forced them to live in the street as street people? .......

How many of the hardcore poor are in Penang; how many street people in Penang, and is there many homeless people in Penang?......

Look at the video, and you will understand that there are another segment of Penang lang, the marginal segment you may not be aware or encounter personally....

It is not good for city to have too many street people and homeless people around, which means there is still many people who are not affording basic human needs. Will the city help them to meet their basic needs?......

What have the welfare department done to sent the old folks street people to old folk home; the kids to orphanage; and the mentally ill for the medical treatment; and the drug addicts to rehabilitation home....

Too many street people will affect the image of Heritage City; have we take care of another living heritage, the people in the Heritage City, the poor Penang Lang.....

Rifle Range Flats urban renewal

Finally the results of Rifle Range Penang Malaysia urban renewal design ideas Competition has been announced by the organizers on 4-11-2010. The effort of Penang state government to improve the living condition of the Rifle Range Flats. The said low cost flats had been an eyesore as slum area for a long time, and the previous government was not able to get rid of the image. This is a place where the politician will gather during the election time, any government that can change the place will be a break through for the state, and a new chapter for the residents of Rifle Range Flats. The residents will be thankful for the change and the improvement in their living conditions.

In the Star dated 15-6-2010, State Local Government and Traffic Management Committee chairman Chow Kon Yeow said Penang’s first public low-cost housing project in Air Itam – the Rifle Range flats – will be upgraded under an urban renewal plan to rid it of its slum image. This was indeed a good news for the residents at Rifle Range Flats. The project would kick off the government’s plan for other similar projects in Penang, that is very good for the state, and a positive step for the CAT government, a people centered and people benefited projects.

This international design ideas competition for 'Urban Renewal For Rifle Range, Penang' is jointly organized by the Penang State Government, Penang Municipal Council, Malaysian Institute of Architects (Northern Chapter) and Malaysian Institute of Planners (Northern Branch).The main objective of this competition is to get a creative ideas and practical solution in redeveloping an existing housing area in Rifle Range, Penang into a vibrant, sustainable and well-planned residential and commercial area. The State government hopes that through this exercise, the quality of life of Rifle Range community, in particular, will be significantly improved.

The proposed site is located on lots 1268, 1275-1283, 2022 and 2104, Section 2, George Town, Jalan Padang Tembak, North East District, Penang. It also includes the existing Public Wet Market and Hawker's Centre. The overall site area is approximately 19.0 acres (please refer to the site plan). The neighboring developments surrounding the site are Sekolah Rendah Kebangsaan Padang Tembak (primary school), DNP textile factory and the head quarters for Penang Water Corporation (PBA).

There are 9 blocks of 17-storey apartments within the site containing 3,663 residential units and 62 shop lots. They were built in 1969. Whereby, the 7 blocks of 4-storey walk-up apartments, owned by the Penang Municipal Council, are located on Lots 2022 and 2104. The total number of residential units is 114 units.

Koi Lik Wai and Wan Jihana Azman of DEAKIN UNIVERSITY AUSTRALIA was the 1st prize winner under the student category. Michael Ong, Cheah Lye Aik, Ang Tok Meng, Abidah Bahrudin, Ho Seng Keen, Lee K Jin from BYG ARCHITECTURE SDN. BHD., Malaysia was the 1st prize winner for the Professionals Category. The Professional category had attracted many entries from oversea.

Now the state government has take the initiative step to change Rifle Range Flats, what will the residents of Rifle Range Flats do? the first is to changed the habit of throwing rubbish everywhere, to maintain the clean image of the resident area, after all this is the home. The residents association should take the steps to educate the residents to change, to make the Rifle Range Flats the home that every one will be proud of .....the change for better.

Thanks to the state government, and the ball is now at the foot of the residents; let us kick it off.........

Related websites and articles:

1.Rifle Range Penang Malaysia urban renewal design ideas Competition,
2. Life in Penang, is more than beautiful: Rifle Range Flat, Air Itam,
3. Rifle Range to undergo urban renewal, The star dated 15-6-2010;
4. Between faith and hope / Home on the range - Penang Economic Monthly;

Tuesday, November 2, 2010

Westlands Road, Penang

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Westlands Road(卫斯兰路)is the road connected Jalan Anson or Anson Road and Jalan Padang Victoria (Victoria Green Road)just in front of the Westlands School field). Victoria Green Road was named after Victoria Green, the grounds of Chinese Recreation Club(CRC) which boast a statue of Queen Victoria there.The side road connected to it are Khaw Sim Bee Road and Pykett Avenue. Westlands Road is mainly Residential area, but lately there are some offices opened in the area. It is not a busy street, mainly used by parents or school buses sending students to Pykett Methodist Primary School and Westlands Secondary School.

The side roads of Victoria Green Road are Jalan Mandalay, Jalan immigration, Jalan Loh Boon Siew. At the T junction of Jalan Mandalay is the entrance gate of the Westlands Primary School. Jalan Loh Boon Siew is named after the famous Penang tycoon, or popular known as Honda King who introduced Honda motorcycle to Malaysia. Jalan Mandalay was named after Burmese city, in fact many of the side street around the area are named after Burmese towns. Jalan immigration was probably named due to the government quarters there.

Westlands Road ; Westlands Schools

Why it is called Westlands Road? Is it named after the name of a person or place or a school? or is it because it is located at the west side of Georgetown?

Westlands is a suburban area and ward in Newcastle-under-Lyme, Staffordshire. The name Westland or Westlands may refer to an area in Newcastle-under-Lyme , Staffordshire or Westlands of Hereford and Worcester.

Is it named after Westlands Primary School, the school with the same name, from other country? If yes,then why the school is named afer Westlands? There is a school, Westlands Primary school, Ostend Place, Westlands, Newcastle under Lyme, Staffordshire ST5 2QY( or Westlands Primary School in Nairobi?.

From the Kelly Map in the year 1893, the area was called Westlands already there. There was also bungalow called Westlands Bungalow or Westlands House. The vast area opposite today's Pykett School may be called “Westlands” in the old days . Obviously the Westlands School is later named after the name of the area. Noticed “Westlands Road” is still not built yet and the area was only with few bungalows, the rows of houses along Westlands Road is not constructed yet. This proved that the area may be named Westlands, even before the building of the Westlands Road and Westlands School.  The  road and the school(Westlands School ) are  probably named after the place, called Westlands.
Historically there was three schools with the name of the Westlands:-

1. Westlands Primary School(1921/1922?), now closed
2. Westlands Secondary School(1957), located at No.3, Jalan Khaw Sim Bee,Penang.
3. Sekolah Menengah Lanjutan Westland, which together with Sekolah Menengah Lanjutan Georgetown, Sekolah Menengah Lanjutan Tanjong, Sekolah Menengah Lanjutan MaCalister, Sekolah Menengah Lanjutan Jalan Kelawei and Sekolah Menengah Lanjutan Glugor to form a new lower secondary school on 11th January 1965, the name of the school is Scotland Road Secondary School, named after the road nearby. The first headmaster was Mr. Lim San Hoe who was transferred from Westland Secondary School on 1st January 1965. It was later renamed Haji Zainal Abidin Secondary School, named after a teacher.

Westlands Road built before the war

1945 .. Bishop Edwin Ferdinand Lee moved  ACS Primary School (Standards 1-6) to the Suffolk House while the Secondary section stayed at Westlands Road with the intention of providing the upper forms with more adequate facilities.(source: MBS history) In 1953 the present MBS building at Ayer Itam Road was put up. It was then decided to have a separate building for the secondary school. Thus the secondary section was named MBS and the Primary Section Pykett Methodist School(source: history of MBS, wikipedia) This revealed that the Westland Road existed before the war. It is probably built after Westlands Primary School.

Westlands Primary School(1921/1922?)

Westland primary School,Penang was a pre war school, before the Japanese occupation during the world war II(1942-1946). Westlands School is an elementary English School for boys; an "English" school in Malaya(Oversea education: a journal of educational experiment and research in tropical and sub-tropical areas, Volumes 17-18, Great Britain. Colonial Office, Great Britain. Dept. of Technical Co-operation, Oxford Univ. Press., 1947). It was a Westland Government Feeder School – Primary class 1 & 2 up to Vii, VIII. 480 boys and 16 teachers.

In Penang, the Northam Road School was opened in 1922 with 12 teachers (Wolff 1923,208)Is it Wellesley school?. The Hillview Government School was opened the following year(1923) (Volues 1998, 321). Farquhar Street English School was opened in 1926 (Winstedt 1927) Is it Hutching school?. The High School, Bukit Mertajam, was opened in 1927 with an enrolment of 327 (Winstedt 1928, 164).

In the list of Government English boys’schools in the Straits Settlements in 1921 and 1938, Westland School Penang was in the list, but date of establishment was NA. In 1921, there was no report of enrolment, but in 1938 it was with enrolment of 318. Hutching school(1928), Francis Light school(1930), Wellesley school(NA), Free school(1816), BM High School(1927) was in the list. That means Westland School, which was primary school should be established before 1938…..(source: The beginning and development of English boys’ and girls’ schools and school libraries in the Straits Settlements, 1786-1941, by Lim Peng Han, Malaysian Journal of Library & Information Science, Vol.14, no.1 April 2009: 57-81.)

In 1938 there were six Government English Boys’ Schools in Penang (Appendix C). Westlands school was one of the 6 English schools. In Nov 1946, there was only 7 government English schools, 5 mission schools, 122 Chinese schools, 98 Malay schools, 34 Indian schools(source: Federation of Malaya and Colony of Singapore: UNESCO post-war education survey, 1948)

From an organizational point of view, English schools were divided into two types: the feeder system and the combined school system. In general the government preferred the feeder system as it was the solution to the problem of providing, within a limited supply of more highly qualified staff, for the increasing demand of English education in the rapidly growing towns (Wong 1966, 471). Wong (1966) also reported that a universal combined school system would involve many small and thus expensive secondary schools. The Lasallians Christian Brother schools opted for the combined school system where the pupils could study continuously in one combined school throughout their school life. They took into consideration the fact that in such a system the friction in progress from primary to secondary classes would be minimized. These schools were professedly Catholic, and as the general education goes hand in hand with religious instruction, the combined system was essential (Wong 1966, 471). together with new subsidiary schools like the Westlands and the Francis Light, it acts as a feeder to the Senior Free School. Boys from feeder schools like Hutchings, Westlands, and Francis Light, had to take a series of examinations to go to Penang Free School.

During the war(1942-1946), Japanese classes was conducted in Westlands School.

Westland Primary School now become Pusat Kecemerlangan Sukan Westland, after its poor enrolment. Westlands primary school now only exist in history.

Is Hill View School, Westlands School?

"My first school was Hillview, which stood next to the Wesley Church, at the corner of Clove Hall Road. One of my classmates was Eu Cheow Chye (who went on to Raffles College and was appointed a magistrate in Singapore. see Note)). Cheow Chye lived on the other side of Burmah Road. That was before the government quarters were built some time in 1926.(source: Lim Teong Beng remembers,". Can hillview be Westlands School? it probably not. Can it be Pykett Methodist School, it may not be? Where is the school now?.

From the above, Westlands Primary School was formerly called Westlands School in colonial days prior to the WW2, may be built at least before 1938 or earlier. But more confirmatively 1921, as it had been reported in Strait Settlement report in 1921, even though no student enrollment reported in 1921. It may be started enrollment in the next year , 1922.

Westlands Secondary School(1957)

The school was formed in January 1957, before independent of Malaya. It was with humble beginning of 4 classes of Form one, and two Form 2 vocational classes from Francis Light School. It was initially looked after by the headmaster of Westlands primary school, Mr Hooi Yip Hoong. It was later taking over by the first headmaster, Mr A William, an Australian, still in 1957. Mr Ooi Khay Bian, a senior teacher from Penang Free School, took over as Headmaster most probably after independence in the same year. Mr Ooi Khay Bian was a graduate from Hong Kong University under Colombo Plan scholarship. He graduated in BA(double majors in English and Mathematics) in 1925.
The initial aim for the school was to serve as a vocational school. But after independence when the standardized syllabus was adopted, it no longer served as vocational school but became a lower secondary school. In 1960 it was a complete secondary school when Form 4 class was started. The school was not able to function under normal conditions, as Continuation class under Sekolah Menengah Lanjutan Westland was using the school premise in the afternoon. The school was also the center for the 10 further education class which started class from 6 p.m. to 9 p.m., which was formed in 1958 but it was later moved to Georgetown Secondary School in 1963. In 1964 it become a English school and a boy school.In 1967, the school however become a lower secodary school with student enrollment of 1,300 pupils. The school started Form 4 class again in 1969, it again become a complete secondary school until today.

The surrounding area
Wesley Church mulling over developer proposals

GEORGE TOWN: The Wesley Methodist Church, which owns the 4-acre site where the Pykett Methodist Boys’ School sits along Burma Road, is considering several proposals from local and Kuala Lumpur-based property developers that are keen to buy the land at RM300 per sq ft.

StarBiz learnt that a major player in the high-end residential property market has proposed to build a new Pykett Methodist School at the site, including a car park for the school, together with condominiums and retail lots.

Another well-known developer on the island has proposed to build a new Pykett Methodist School at a different site owned by the developer.

“The developer will also build some properties for the Methodist Church so that it can generate long-term revenue. In return, the developer gets to develop certain portions of the land to offset the construction cost of the school and other properties for the land owner. The cost of the school and car park will be used to offset the selling price of the land,” the sources said.

Another developer, which has made a bid to purchase the land, said the price of RM300 per sq ft was on the high side.

“Land in the area is priced around RM200 to RM250 per sq ft. At present, the site is gazetted as institutional land and needs to be converted for other usage. The commercial enhancement value charge, for example, is about 50% of the incremental value of the land, based on the difference between the selling price when it was first valued and what it is worth today. The other factor that needs to be considered is that the developer can apply to build up to 30 units per acre on this site,” the developer said.

When contacted, an Eastern & Oriental Bhd spokesman said that the group had not bid for the land.

Due to the shortage of land on the island, the area around Pykett Methodist Boys’ School has become a popular site for new residential projects.

For example, Mah Sing Group Bhd will be launching Icon Residence early next year, which is located at the crossroads of Burmah Road and Anson Road – a stone’s throw from Pykett Methodist Boys’ School. The condominium project has an estimated gross sales value of over RM200mil.
(source : The Star ,Tuesday October 19, 2010)

If Methodist Church is to sell the land, I suggested that the Methodist ask for the land to build one Chinese secondary school at Sungai Ara area, there is no Chinese secondary school in the area. It can serve the students from Batu Maung, Teluk Kumbar, Bayan Lepas, Sungai Ara, Relau areas. You can called it Methodist Chinese School or Pykett Chinese School or Anglo Chinese School(the original name). As the pioneer spirit of Rev Pykett is for mission schools, government primary school can still be financed and sponsored by the government, but for a Chinese secondary school, it still require the support of private sector, and to build a Chinese secondary school will be inline with the mission.

Chinese Recreation Club or CRC(since 1892)
 CRC is not located at Westlands Road, but Padang Victoria Road.

The CRC was the most prestigious club of the Chinese and was born out of love of football in 1892. 'BROOKE BOND'S TEA',was the meeting place of a group of Chinese footballers who played at the Esplanade Field or Padang, before they formed the Chinese Recreation Club The Chinese wanted a recreation club in the class of the Penang Sports Club, the Penang Club and the Penang Swimming Club, all European enclaves. The Chinese Recreation Club was found on 2-12-1892, exempted from registration. It was formed under the trusteeship of Cheah Tek Thye, Khaw Joo Tok, Chung Thye Phin,Lim Kek Chuan, lim Eow Hong,Lim Cheng Teik, Yeoh Wee Gaik, Cheah Choon Seng, Ho Tiang Wan, Tan Kang Hock, all of them were the prominent Fujian and Kwangdong community leaders at that time. They were the English educated Penang Baba or Strait Chinese, unlike Malacca Baba, Penang Baba were in general, Chinese speaking (mainly Hokkien) while the Melaka Baba spoke their own form of Malay. In the article "History of the Chinese Recreation Club Penang 1892-1952" by Toh Hooi Choon, mention of Kassim Merican, who was one of the founders of the Club, he was the only non-Chinese member(source: The Merican clan: a story of courage and destiny, by Ragayah, Ragayah Eusoff, published by Times Books International, 1997) .
Chinese Recreation Club History (by Timothy Tye)
Chinese Recreation Club, or CRC, was formed by a group of Chinese who were very much into football. They would meet at Foo Tye Sin Mansion, the home of local Chinese tycoon, to play football in the Esplanade field. However, they faced a problem in that the field was already occupied by two existing sports club - the Penang Sports Club, which is open only to whites, and the Penang Recreation Club, which admits Eurasians. Neither allowed Chinese in. Furthermore, the Penang Club and the Penang Swimming Club also prohibit membership from the locals.
As they did not feel welcome to use the Esplanade field, the team moved to Lake Villa, at 351 Jalan Perak, which is across the road from the Kem Tentera of Lebuhraya Peel. Lake Villa, as its name suggests, had a lake, which means many a time balls had to be fished out of the water. In 1903, the five main Hokkien clan associations - the Khoo, the Lim, the Tan, the Cheah and the Yeoh - got together and resolved that they need to buy land to establish their own sporting club. Looking within the vicinity of Lake Villa , they found three adjoining plots of land along Jalan Pangkor. The land totalled 278,547 sq ft (six and a half acres) and was purchased for $4,600, a huge sum in those days. An additional 11,000 sq feet along Jalan Burma was added in 1913. Trustees of the deed dating to 1906 count among them the pillars of Chinese high society of those days, among them, in alphabetical order, Cheah Choon Seng, Cheah Tek Thye, Chung Thye Phin (the Kapitan China who built Relau Villa), Ho tiang Wah, Khaw Joo Tock, Lim Cheng Teik, Lim Eow Hong and Tan Kang Hock. The members, who considered themselves "the Queen'sChinese", and wanting to show their loyalty to the British, decided to call the field "Victoria Green". The club itself was called the "Penang Chinese Recreation Club".

Originally, the clubhouse was a bungalow called Eastbourne which stood on the plot when it was bought. By the 1920's Eastbourne was already in a dilapidated state, so the club decided that they should build a new clubhouse. A fund raising campaign managed to collect $100,000 for the clubhouse. It was designed in the Victorian style and was completed in 1931.

The Second World War brought great misery to Penang, and the Chinese Recreation Club was not spared. After Allied bombing destroyed the Penang Road Police Headquarters, the Japanese took over the premises of CRC as the broadcasting station. The Japanese burned the books, tore up papers, documents and photographs belong to the club, and even removed the fence for use as scrap metal.

When the British returned in 1945, the CRC found themselves with a new "tenant" as the British Military Administration took possession of the broadcasting station left by the Japanese. It was only at the end of 1945, on 22 December, that the CRC committee got to hold their meeting again. The club had to try repeatedly to repossess their premises from the British, who returned to them bit by bit. Another seven years who pass before the British relinquished the whole premises of CRC back to the club members. However, they refused to pay for repairs and damages, even for places that were used by them.

In the 1950's, the CRC excelled in sports particularly tennis and football. However the independence of Malaya in 1957 caused it to face competition from the Penang Sports Club, which now open to locals. Between the late 1940's to the 1960's, the CRC was frequently in dire straits. In 1960, the club committee even had to resort to putting up slot machines at its premises.

Today the CRC continues to function as a membership-based sports club. At the corner of Victoria Green facing the junction of Jalan Burma and Jalan Pangkor is the Queen Victoria Memorial Statue.

(source: By Timothy Tye, Penang Travel Tips,

Related articles:-
1. What Makes A School Great; was a mention on Westlands Secondary school's first Asian Headmaster, Mr Mr Ooi Khay Bian)
2, It Runs in the Family;
3. The beginning and development of English boys’ and girls’ schools and school libraries in the Straits Settlements, 1786-1941, by Lim Peng Han

Monday, November 1, 2010

Malaysians should not give racial extremists any quarter

KUALA LUMPUR, Nov 1 (Bernama) -- Malaysians should not give racial extremists any quarter, said Minister in the Prime Minister''s Department Datuk Seri Mohamed Nazri Abdul Aziz.

He said they were bent on sowing the seeds of discord among the people and were not welcome as no Malaysian wanted a repeat of the May 13 tragedy of 1969.

"It''s been over 40 years now since the tragedy and the people are living in harmony because they understand no one benefits if racial issues are blown up," he said at a 1Malaysia charity dinner that was attended by over 4,000 people from all races, here tonight.

He added the way to go was mutual respect for each other and live out the 1Malaysia concept as espoused by Prime Minister Datuk Seri Najib Tun Razak.

He added that 50 years of independence was more than enough for the races to understand each other and when they sang the national anthem together, it should not just be singing the lyrics but understand the deep meaning they contained.

Also present were Deputy International Trade and Industry Minister Datuk Mukhriz Mahathir, Deputy Education Minister Datuk Wee Ka Siong and Kepong Member of Parliament, Dr Tan Seng Giaw.


This is the best word coming from a national leader, hope that they will walk the talk....

Where is Penang's talents?

Where has all the talents gone? long time passing....

Penang Chief Minister Mr Lim Guan Eng recently was not happy over the top Cambridge law student Tan Zhongshan serving in our neighboring country, Singapore. I was wonder did he get the JPA scholarship? or Singapore government scholarship? The issue of talents leaving the country is not new, it has happen long time ago, and despite the problem, the government is not able to attract the talents, we are actually export our talents to other countries. What is the actual cause?

The roots of the problem is the system of incentives and scholarship for the best talents from the country, the other is the career opportunity in the country. Did we have the rich environment for the talents to excel if they come back, will they have the best chances in turn of career advancement especially in government service, can they get the best resources, can they have the liberty to do well....or is there any political or racial biased factors in the environment?....Is the human capital environment attractive enough for them?....the answer is still "NO"....

Actually the federal government know the problem, but is not able to tackle due to their own policy based on political agenda. It is sad that despite the 53 years after the independence, we are not able to provide our younger generation the sense of equality, and liberal environment to excel in their talents. No wonder they choose to leave. The nation need a critical policy change....

But congratulation to the Government for their ability to attract unskilled immigrants to the country, and their ability to export the talents to other country. The issue of the talents management in the country is not the priority to the current government, may be it only significantly affect Penang state, the shortage of E&E engineers. The Johor state still can take back their income, as many of the talents still living in Johor Bahru, as for Kuala Lumpur, being a administrative and commercial centre, it still can attract the talents from other states to off balance the outflow.

The following is Press Statement By DAP Secretary-General And MP For Bagan Lim Guan Eng(also the current Chief Minister of Penang) In DAP Penang Headquarters In Penang On 20.10.2010.

Failure Of Talent Corporation To Entice Top Cambridge University Law Student Tan Zhongshan Back To Malaysia A Consequence Of Failed Economic Policies That Stresses 100-Storey Warisan Merdeka Over Human Capital Formation.

DAP wishes to extend our congratulations on behalf of Malaysians to Ipoh-born Tan Zhongshan for his outstanding achievement in becoming the top law student in the prestigious Cambridge University. However our pride at Tan’s success is tempered by the failure of our government to engage his services resulting in Tan heading to Singapore to join its Legal Service commission.
Tan’s departure from Malaysia is not surprising as he is part of the alarming brain drain that has swelled to almost tsunami levels. The number of Malaysian migrants rose by more than 100-fold in a 45-year period, from 9,576 Malaysians in 1960 to 1,489,168 Malaysians in 2005, according to the World Bank, which warned that a lack of human capital is a “critical constraint in Malaysia’s ambition to become a high-income economy.”

Deputy Foreign Minister Senator A. Kohilan Pillay also said recently that 304,358 Malaysians had migrated from March 2008 till August 2009 compared with 139,696 Malaysians in 2007. In other words 1,942,798 mostly bright and talented Malaysians have left over the past 50 years since 1960 until August 2009.

The prime minister told Parliament this month that less than one per cent of 784,900 Malaysians working overseas have returned to the country during the past nine years with Singapore having the highest number of Malaysians with 303,828 people, followed by Australia with 78,858.

No longer are only non-Malays leaving the country for better employment opportunities, even Malays are doing the same. When I went to Dubai nearly 2 years ago, I was surprised to learn there were thousands of Malay professionals there who left Malaysia due to lack of promotional opportunities as they were not politically connected to top UMNO leaders.

In an effort to stop the hollowing out of Malaysia’s economy and lure back talents, the Najib administration has established the Talent Corporation (Talentcorp). Unfortunately, the failure of Talent Corporation to entice top Malaysian talents like Tan back to work in Malaysia is a consequence of failed economic policies that stresses 100-storey Warisan Merdeka over human capital formation.

Human talents is the new oil of the 21st century. The country that succeeds in training, retraining, retaining and attracting human talent will not just enjoy economic prosperity but be a world power. In this new paradigm, innovation is king.

Clearly stressing other considerations such as race or political connections over merits and needs not only drives away top talents, but also depresses standards and encourages a culture of mediocrity over excellence. The Malaysian government must also be bold in setting ability as the key ingredient for promotion and reward.

DAP does not see how Malaysia’s Talent Corporation will be able to succeed in attracting back 750,000 Malaysians working overseas, where only 1% has returned, if the federal government is more concerned about spending tens of billions on mega-projects that does not build human capital.



Singapore and Penang are close in many ways, both were part of Strait Settlement; and many Penangites contributed in early Singapore development. The late Mr Hon Sui Sen from Balik Pulau, an old Xaverian, Mr Wee Chong Jin(黄宗仁), the first Chief Justice of Singapore was from George Town, Penang, an ex-student from Penang Free School. In fact all three Chief Justice of Singapore, Wee Chong Jin, Yong Pung How(杨邦孝)from Kuala Lumpur and Chan Sek Keong(陈锡强)from Ipoh, are all from Malaysia. Currently Mr Khaw Boon Wan, from Chung Ling High School was Minister of Health; Kasinather Saunthararajah,former Judicial Commissioner of the Supreme Court of Singapore, from Perai, Province Wellesley, Penang, ex-student from Bukit Mertajam High School. These are the talent people from Penang, there are many in Singapore, Taiwan, England, Australia, Canada, Thailand, China and other places....they excel in oversea, other countries, why?....why they did not stay?, I believe that the answer is there, they were able to achieve the highest level where there was no unnecessary political restriction in their pursuit of excellence. The trend will continue, as long as old policy remained, no matter what new name you give it..... Singapore still have advantage and ability to attract new talents...

Penang is the most critical, because we are talents producing state; and we urgently need the talents in our current economic environment. Our industry based economy need large pool of E&E engineers, and other talents.

Penang used to have the best resources pool of education institutions to produce talents. Chung Ling High School, Jit Sin High School, Penang Chinese Girl's High School, Penang Free School, St Xavier Institution, the Convents, the MBS and MGS.....Penang has produced graduates of outstanding qualities especially in engineering, technical and IT skills to meet the needs of the industry. Penang Skills Development Centre churned over 100,000 trainees since its establishment in 1998. We have university of Science(USM) despite the medical faculty was moved to Kelantan. We have private institutions and colleges. Penang used to be a talents producing state....but how many are retain in the country? mainly because of the national policy of the talent management, it badly affect the progress of Penang state; we are not only suffered from the talent leaks, the momentum of the economic development was adversely affected to take a slower rate.... a state without any natural resources like Singapore, and yet we are left behind by Singapore due to our political restrictions....

But the clue is that many talents was lost when they come out from the secondary schools; attractive scholarships are given by Singapore, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Australia, USA to attract our best talents. They skim the top portion of the talent pool, the best brains from Penang.....Many failed to obtain the federal scholarships, JPA scholarships but was offered scholarships by other country who see their potentials with clear mind( not with polluted political views)...We acknowledged that the situation has improved, but can it changed the situation when the offer by others are better?.....for the talents, they still have the liberty to make their choice....

Malaysia was left with the remaining talent pools, and hoping that the top talent skimmed by the other countries come back one day......we are reactive and hope for the best..other country is proactive to take the best away....all because of the national policy which is not suitable anymore in the global environment..And to add salts to the wounds, our existing talents are attracted by the other developing countries, offering better incentives and remunerations....

The job market and talent management policy will need to focus actively on the global market; no more within the national boundary, as we are now competing with other countries for our own talents. Any human capital policy or talent management policy based on narrow minded political agenda will weaken as time go by. All these policies must taken into consideration the global prospective. The new generation of young people will be global in their outlook and diluted in their racial identification or even national identification as time go by ....the world is their platform, they have better choice....For Penang, which has to compete not only globally, but also with other states in the country.

Are we still pondering or hiding our head like ostrich? I hope we look out from our coconut shell...and tackle the problem straight to the root, otherwise the national talent management policy or human capital policy will only be less effective and continue export talents...

Talents are talents, they have brains, they can see what is actually behind the sweet wrappers....the content of the policy...the outlook and the hidden agenda....and the most important is they have alternatives in the global market for their talents.

For Penang, we need to have a prestige scholarship scheme like the former Queen scholarship, or Singapore's President scholarship to retain Penang talents, to prevent them from leaving the state, as well as the country. We need to attract the talent back not only from other country, but other states. We need to build the environment now for them to come back, no point waiting for the federal to do it. We also need the talents to sit at future state cabinet..we need to continue to maintain our education institutions to be top quality. We need to bring in top class university to the state.

We need to recognize that being a state government, we have our limitations; but we need to seek for blue ocean strategy for an alternative to manage the state's talent pools.

...just to salvage some talents, as I think the talent will still be leaving as the big environment is still weak....we cannot provide the bigger platform for them, or even globally. But Penang must move forward no matter how, to compete globally...we cannot wait for others to move.....

"To attract talent, Penang must be seen to be an attractive enough place to call home. It must be a great place to work, ... And not only shall we strive to train and retain local talent, we also want to bring in NEW talents to Penang". ...(Lim Guan Eng's speech in Penang Outlook Forum 2009)

Talent management is simple, Home sweet Home, and not only Sweets with beautiful meaningless sweet wrappers....we need a freeer and better home environment for the talents...

Related articles

1. Repossessing the future of Penang,
2. Speech by Lim Guan Eng at the 2nd PSC Meeting - Agilent Technologies Bayan Lepas Free Trade Zone on Monday, 16th August 2010: ;
3. Pilot Studies for a New Penang, by Ooi Kee Beng & Goh Ban Lee, eds., Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2010