Wednesday, January 27, 2010

Province Wellesley(Seberang Perai)威省

Province Wellesley(Seberang Perai)威尔斯利省/威斯利省,short form PW(威省).

Province Wellesley (also known as Seberang Perai in Malay): a narrow hinterland of 753 square kilometres on the Malaya peninsula across a narrow channel whose smallest width is 4 km (2.5 miles). It is bordered by Kedah in the north (demarcated by the Muda River) and east, and Perak in the south and has an estimated population of 833,000.

The body of water between Penang Island and Province Wellesley is the North Channel to the north of Georgetown and the South Channel to the south of George Town.

Seberang Perai, together with Penang Island, it formed the State of Pulau Pinang(Penang). The Seberang Perai is connected to Penang Island by 13.5km Penang Bridge.

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Majlis Perbandaran Seberang Perai (MPPP)

The local authority in Seberang Perai is the Majlis Perbandaran Seberang Perai (MPSP) or Municipal Council of Province Wellesley, while the Majlis Perbandaran Pulau Pinang (MPPP) or Municipal Council of Penang Island is the local authority for Penang island.
Seberang Perai is also divided into three administrative districts:

(1)North Seberang Perai(Daerah Seberang Perai Utara)
(2)Central Seberang Perai(Daerah Seberang Perai Tengah)
(3)South Seberang Perai(Daerah Seberang Perai Selatan)

Each district is headed by a district officer.

Each district has its own District and Land Office which deals with land matters and other matters not dealt with the Municipal Council of Province Wellesley. The municipal council is one of the few local councils in Malaysia which governs more than one districts.

History of MPSP

It was originally part of the state of Kedah. It was ceded to the British East India Company by the Sultan of Kedah in 1798, and has been part of the settlement and state of Penang ever since. Sultan Abdullah, had no choice but to cede the strip of land to the British, as he had just lost a war with the British, in trying to get Penang Island back from Francis Light. By the time Province Wellesley was ceded, Francis Light had passed away (in 1794), and the negotiation was carried out by Sir George Leith, the then Lieutenant-Governor ofPenang. The British wanted this strip of land to create a buffer zone to protect Penang.

The province was originally named after Richard Wellesley(1760-1842), 1st Marquess Wellesley, Governor of Madras and Governor-General of Bengal (1798-1805). Later on it was renamed Seberang Prai, derived from the name of Perai(historically called Prye by English)

During the industrilization in the seventies; light industry was located at Bayan Baru, and heavy industry was at Perai.

1800 - it was administrated from Penang Island as British colony. Mainly swampy jungle, with population only 5,000 people. Covering an area of 489.3 sq. km.

1850 - Exploration commenced, Seberang Perai changed its look from being a forest to an agricultural land.

1867 - The boundary with Kedah was rectified by treaty with Siam in 1867. It was administered by a district officer, with some assistants, answering to the resident councillor of Penang. The country consists, for the most part, of fertile plain, thickly populated by Malays, and occupied in some parts by sugar-planters and others engaged in similar agricultural industries and employing Chinese and Tamil labor. About a tenth of the whole area was covered by low hills with thick jungle. Large quantities of rice are grown by the Malay inhabitants, and between October and February there is excellent snipe-shooting to be had in the paddy-fields.

1874 - After the signing of the Pangkor Agreement in 1874, the area of Province Wellesley was increased to 740.12 sq. km. Population had by then increased due to the opening of the new townships of Butterworth and Bukit Mertajam. The areal coverage of Seberang Perai currently stands at 738.41 sq. km. The reduction in area is due to changes in the alignment of Sungai Muda (Muda River) which demarcates the border between Kedah and Penang.

1896 - The first Municipal Ordinance was introduced to ensure the smooth administration of local authorities in Penang.

1913- New Ordinance was released, the state government established Rural Board at Province Welesley. Butterworth Municipal Council and Rural Municipal Council for North, Centre and South were estanlished.

1952 - Two Local Authorities and three Rural Authorities were established.

1961 - The three Rural Authorities were merged to become the District Authority.

1974 - Local Government Act(Peruntukan-Peruntukan Sementara) 1973 was taken into effect in Penang. On 1st of July 1974, all three North County Council, Centre County Council and South County Council, Seberang Perai were unitised and known as a Local Authorithy Managing Body, Seberang Perai.

1976 - Local Government Act 1976 took into effect on 15-12-1976. Local Authorithy Managing Body of Seberang Perai is now known as Majlis Perbandaran Seberang Perai(Seberang Perai Municipal Council)or MPSP and obtained the State Municipal standard.

Today, MPSP administers three main Districts with 54 localities.

Richard Colley Wesley, later Wellesley, 1st Marquess Wellesley KG, PC, PC (Ire) (20 June 1760 – 26 September 1842), styled Viscount Wellesley from birth until 1781, was an Irish politician and colonial administrator. He was the eldest son of Garret Wesley, 1st Earl of Mornington, an Irish peer, and brother of Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington. He first made his name as Governor-General of India between 1798 and 1805 and later served as Foreign Secretary in the British cabinet(1809-1812) and as Lord Lieutenant of Ireland(1821-1828 & 1833-1834).

He was born at Dangan Castle, Ireland, on June 20, 1760, was the eldest of six sons of Viscount Wellesley.

Towns in Seberang Perai

The chief town is Butterworth.

(1)North Seberang Perai(Daerah Seberang Perai Utara)- district administration capital at Bertam, Kepala Batas. Main towns are Kepala Batas,Bagan Ajam,Permatang Pauh, Permatang Tinggi, Raja Uda, Butterworth,Mak Mandin, Bagan Luar, Bagan Dalam, Bagan Jemal

(2)Central Seberang Perai(Daerah Seberang Perai Tengah)- district administration at Bandar Perda, Bukit Mertajam. The main towns are Juru, Alma,Seberang Jaya,Batu Kawan, Bukit Minyak

(3)South Seberang Perai(Daerah Seberang Perai Selatan)- The district capital is Sungei Jawi.main towns are Nibong Tebal, Sungei Jawi, Sungei Bakap, Bukit Tambun, Simpang Empat. There are 16 mukims.

Alma - Bagan Ajam - Bagan Luar - Batu Kawan - Bukit Mertajam - Bukit Minyak - Butterworth - Jawi - Juru - Kepala Batas - Mak Mandin - Nibong Tebal - Permatang Pauh - Perai - Raja Uda - Seberang Jaya - Simpang Ampat - Sungai Bakap - Bukit Tambun - Permatang Tinggi

Seberang Perai is connected to Penang island by the Penang Bridge and by ferry services. There is a Keretapi Tanah Melayu (KTM) train station and a container terminal at Butterworth. North South Highway pass through Seberang Perai.

Education Institutions
There are several higher learning institutions located in Seberang Perai but the most prominent are Engineering Faculty of Universiti Sains Malaysia(USM),located at Nibong Tebal; Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), Penang branch and Politeknik Seberang Perai (PSP). Both are situated in the district of Permatang Pauh.


* AEON Seberang Prai City is located at Bandar Perda. It is the latest and largest shopping centre in Seberang Prai. It opened on 22 August 2008.

* Sunway Carnival Mall is located at Seberang Jaya. It is the first shopping mall in Malaysia to have an IT information provider. It also houses a cinema and retail shops.

* Megamal is located at Prai and is one of the largest shopping arcades. It houses a hypermarket, cineplex, and many retail shops.

* Carrefour is a hypermarket for the locals located in Seberang Jaya.

* Giant Hypermarket is a major supermarket and retailer chain in Malaysia, Singapore and Indonesia. It is located in the roadside of the Butterworth Outering Bridge and inside Sunway Carnival Mall.

* Tesco Extra Seberang Perai (formally known as Makro), it is one of the hypermarkets in Seberang Perai which is located in the area of the residence living quarter.

Auto City, Juru(柔府汽車城)

Auto City is located along the North-South highway at Juru. Started by the federal government in 2003, the area is a one-stop center for food, auto showroom and endless carnival. Also known as Highway Auto City, the center is reputed to be the first of its kind in Malaysia displaying a good and posh selection of auto vehicle, business & entertainment hub. Juru Auto-City is located after the Juru tol plaza (if from the south) or the Penang bridge.

History(In Chinese)

威利斯省(Province Wellesley)這塊原屬吉打蘇丹王國的土地,是於1798年割讓給英國東印度公司,歸併於檳榔嶼這個新殖民地,惟延至兩年後才正式簽字,1801年初檳城政府才派人接管。檳城這塊新領土的地界是以南北兩條河──慕達河(Sungei Muda)和吉輦河(Sungei Krian)為界線,地方幅員後來經過三次交涉而擴大,頭兩次是1831年和1867年,那是暹羅通過其南部藩屬國犯境引發衝突,兵敗後與英方重劃威省界線時割讓,最後一次是1874年海峽殖民地政府坐莊主持邦咯島和議,在吉輦河出海前一段曲折蜿蜒的河道南邊劃一橫直線,把原屬霹靂蘇丹王國的一塊地給了英國。(邦咯條約下馬來王公們各有得失,蘇丹阿都拉王位受英國承認,是個勝利者,對失地沒有反應,拉律邑主Ngah Ibrahim喪失獨立主權,采邑地望原包括吉輦,這地方版圖又失去一大角,才是啞子吃黃連。)

在鞏德(George Caunter)與吉打蘇丹談商的條約裡,有一條規定雙方有義務協助對方逮捕和遞解逃亡的罪犯和欠債人。當年馬來半島沿岸海盜橫行,北方的海盜多為拉農人(Lannuns)和武夷士人(Bugis),很多海盜背後有陸上王公撐腰,以人煙稀少的威省莽林為逋逃藪。至於欠債人,其實是債奴,馬來王室大公注重排場,扈從愈多愈體面光彩,其中泰半是這類實際生產力不高的債奴。(鞏德在George Leith蒞任總督前曾署理主政官職務年餘,Caunter Hall〔華文譯名關打賀〕這條路一端在霹靂路,三幾轉後與大英義學路相接,已故馬來名藝人P.Ramlee老家在此路中。)



華人在威省開拓甘蔗園坵,應該早在1800年之前,當時都是小規模種植,這個小格局維持了至少20年,而開發地區也集中在中部武吉淡汶(Bukit Tambun)往南到峇都交灣島(Batu Kawan)一帶。(峇都交灣是個大島,當年威省沿海地帶深入內陸數里地都是紅樹林沼澤地,後來環抱該島三邊的河道淤淺以至填平,島接連陸地而失其特徵,今人只知當年同名村落發展出來的鄉鎮。)歐洲人要遲至1840年後才在威省種植甘蔗,而在這30多年裡,威省甘蔗業主要靠華人獨立經營,當地人口也隨園坵業和榨糖業的發展而增加,1820年華人總數只有325人,到1833年已激增至2千259人。

歐洲人涉足檳城甘蔗業是從煉糖開始,1830年島上阿依淡和瀑布區(今植物園)出現兩間榨糖寮,到1838年首個歐洲人經營的甘蔗園Otaheite Estate才在阿依淡盆地開業,兩年後威省才有最早的歐洲人甘蔗園。華人業者從拓荒時期開始就兼營榨糖業,惟在規模和生產技術上始終較歐洲人遜色,園坵業是人力集約的作業,而煉糖則是資金和技術集約的企業,甘蔗業二分法逐漸成型,華人和歐人在威省甘蔗業巔峰時期就形成各自的特色。



威南甘蔗園鼎盛時期,1890年代初若干年,華人和歐人種植的總面積達1萬5千650英畝,但已經分割而沒有種植的園坵面積也頗不小,在前此的投資熱潮之中,許多華人園主在1860年代已經成為霹靂蘇丹子民,擴展到吉輦河流域來。吉輦區於1880年只有8個甘蔗園,佔地8千379畝(不一定全有種植),到 1888年則有21個園坵,佔地高達1萬6千414畝;在那幾年裡,砵威(Port Weld)港口和半島第一段火車路開闢成功,拉律產錫區和吉輦之間又建好新的通路,也都是刺激吉輦甘蔗園坵業的有利因素。在威南和吉輦甘蔗園主之中,聲名最為顯赫者當推潮安人許武安,他是義興黨頭目,曾陪同甲必丹陳亞炎在邦咯和議(華人私會黨那一份)簽字,1886年受委霹靂州議會議員,同時受封甲必丹,1890年後又任檳榔嶼華人諮詢局委員;他的園坵除開承自父蔭的武吉淡汶大片產業之外,他本身開發的則在威南(跨吉輦園坵Trans-Krian Estate,佔2千畝,在1874年新划界歸入威省的地區)和吉輦(Sungei Bogak Estate,佔地2千800畝),這兩塊地各在巴里文打的北邊和南邊。許德發和張惠思都叫巴里文打為家鄉,這篇小文章就贈給他們。


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