Saturday, November 26, 2011

被遗忘在垃圾堆的大总统秘书- 雷铁崖(Lei Tieya )

在自贡贡井和平广场,曾经屹立着一个雕像,他就是贡井人的骄傲--孙中山临时大总统的秘书---雷铁崖.

雷铁崖是谁?谁是雷铁崖?

雷铁崖(1873—1920),原名昭性,字泽皆,入同盟会后署名铁崖。清同治12年9月13日(1873年11月2日)出生在富顺县自流井石头沟(今贡井区双塘乡石沟村)一盐商家庭.

四川自贡人吴玉章(1878-1966)、谢奉琦(1882-1908)和“雷铁崖(1873-1920)堪称辛亥革命之“三杰”....

雷铁崖是槟城光華日報第一任總編輯(1910-1912).....

1910,檳城閱書報社带头开会议决招股出版,选出六人专办此事,他们是:黄金庆、陈新政、丘明旭、杨汉翔、林贻博及曾受兰。时适胡汉民因营救汪精卫(因在北京刺杀摄政 王戴沣不遂被捕(1910年4月16日))出狱事来槟城会陈璧君(她是槟城人,于1912年在广州下嫁汪精卫),巧遇上阅书报社要组织报馆,乃由胡汉民代 撰招股序文及简章,并即介绍编辑人员。雷铁崖(曾任总编辑)及张仕鹃即为胡汉民与孙中山商定后所聘请者(谢诗坚, 2010)

創刊於1910年12月2日的《光華日報》,是由中華民國國父孫中山先生創立,報名出自中山先生的構想,含「光復華夏」之意,中山先生並親手寫下這四個字,這四個字即是近百年來《光華日報》的刊頭和建築物招牌上的字體。《光華日報》创刊社址是120号打铜仔街(120, Armenian Street, Penang)

雷铁崖为创刊(1910年12月2日,即庚戌年农历十一月初一)初期的《光华日报》报头题字。

《光華日報》由胡漢民和檳城華僑如黃金慶、吳世榮、陳新政等共同創刊,第一任總編輯為中山先生欣賞的四川才子雷鐵崖。當時是中山先生授意胡漢民寫信力邀雷鐵崖,再由中山先生兄長孫眉到上海力邀,雷鐵崖才同意到檳城上任,而在雷鐵崖的邀請之下,戴季陶(又名戴天仇)也南來檳城出任編輯之職。

創刊初期,《光華日報》每天出版兩大張,社論、新聞、廣告一應具全,為了爭奪保皇派報紙的輿論陣地,雷鐵崖在《光華日報》履任的一年餘期間,以社論、諧文、笑話、雜談的方式,發表文章近百篇,他極具震撼力和鼓動性的寫作方式,日獲當地華僑敬重,國民黨元老馮自由後來曾說,南洋華僑在辛亥革命中提供的人力和財力,雷鐵崖的一枝筆功不可沒。

在這期間,《光華日報》風行海內外,上海、廣州、福州、檀香山、舊金山、香港、新加坡等地71處均設代理。後來中山先生革命成功出任臨時大總統之際,雷鐵崖還曾返大陸擔任中山先生的祕書。

據1911年5月24日的檳榔嶼《光華日報》記載,羅仲霍(1881-1911, 黄花岗烈士)回國前曾拜訪自貢名人雷鐵崖,兩個人行祭飲之禮後,羅仲霍自言自語說:「此行實省老母,顧能再南渡否,不可知。」國難當前,羅仲霍仍有拳拳孝心,難怪雷鐵崖感慨地說:「世豈有忘親事敵之人,而能捨生取義者哉。」

他担任斯职为期一年有余,1912 年返国抵沪.

1920年5月8日,雷铁崖这位中国近代史上一生追求革命,四次创办刊物并任主编或主笔的宣传家重病去世,终年48岁。

今天, 雷铁崖的雕像被遗忘在垃圾堆中.....

遗憾, 遗憾.....

报业巨子、诗人雷铁崖(1873-1920)
陈思逊

(一)

雷铁崖是辛亥革命时期的报业巨子、诗人,曾任临时大总统孙中山的秘书。雷铁崖原名昭性,字泽皆,初号詟皆,正号铁崖,联系其姓氏,用意欲以雷霆之声唤醒国人。1873年11月2日 (清同治十二年九月十三日),生于四川富顺县自流井(今属自贡市)一盐商家庭。在弟兄五人中雷昭性行四,后因父亲经营盐业不善而遭破产,雷铁崖只得辍学,割牛草助父谋生。1894年(清光绪二十年),雷铁崖与李宗吾、谢奉奇、曾昭鲁等同入炳文书院,就读于卢庆家山长门下。1900年,参加府试,与弟雷民心(昭仁)同进秀才。求学期问,雷嗜性理学,言行凝重,曾自比宋儒,被同学戏吁为詟圣。随二十世纪初,空前严重的民族危机和民主革命思想的广泛传播,雷深受感染,开始接受新思想,“好说改革,乡人目为王安石”。1904年6月,他偶遇自东京留学归来者,得悉东京留学界情况,极思往会该处革命分子。乃于当年9月,约集同志赴日留学。是时家乡风气末开,父兄阻其行。得母陈氏与岳父李玉廷之助,潜行得脱,雷铁崖启程是半夜偷逃的,只有好友张荔丹在釜溪河畔送行。后由泸州东下,出三峡,11月抵沪,于1905年1月到达日本,先后就读于大成学校和宏文学院。作为“激荡于新潮流,民族思想愈勃发不可遏”的诗人,以挺身而出拯救危亡为己任,现在他终于如愿东渡,“一曲骊歌辞祖国,几回搔首望慈严”;他在《旅夜偶书》中吟道:“难国风尘奴隶泪,北听烽火虎狼兵。男儿不拯神州劫,辜负龙泉壁上鸣。”在《步剑华原韵》中写道:“渭水潮流归猛恶,骊山烽火伴登临。匈奴未灭家河有?无定河边莫苦吟。”

1905年,孙中山自美国抵日本,8月20日,中国同盟会在东京成立。五天后,雷铁崖由孙中山介绍、川籍同学黄树中主盟加入。他经常撰述革命论作,发表于《民报》。9月,与四川留日学生共同创办《鹃声》杂志,开始其文字鼓吹的革命生涯。《鹃声》以“发明公理,拥护人权”为主旨,通过宣传,唤起四川及全国同胞挽救民族危机,建设新的中国。在创刊词中引用了古诗句:“子规夜半犹蹄血,不信东风唤不回”,以表明同仁的恳切态度和坚定信心。雷铁崖任主笔的《鹃声》杂志,因主张革命排满最激烈,被清吏参奏为“专以叛国革命为宗旨”;“清政府惊呼:”“此报若行,将乱中国”。遂通过驻日公使明令封禁。1907年3至5月,雷铁崖独立复刊《鹃声》,出版《鹃声》复兴第一号,改用文言文作掩护,继续坚持爱国革命宣传活动,在文章中,主张用革命手段破坏专制政体,“恢复祖国,以建民主政体”。

1907年12月,吴玉章在东京创办《四川》杂志,雷铁崖担任编辑和撰述工作。该杂志以“输入文明,开通民智”为宗旨,有“西南半壁警钟”之称,在当时颇有影响。雷不仅诗兴联翩,大抒爱国怀抱,还认为蜀中西鄙之地,锢蔽为甚,他必须效申公说法,一醒聋玻,呕心沥血。他在论著《警告全蜀》的长篇论述中,以犀利的文笔,记述了自《辛丑条约》签订后,帝国主义瓜分中国的险象,我国子民处于“刀下之肉糜”和“枪下之血肉”之境遇。要挽救中国的危亡,就必须破除对政府、官吏、士绅的“依赖病”,依靠爱国志士的共同努力来完成。他号召人们“各尽心力,合力图谋”去拯救国家。《四川》杂志后来因言论激烈,被日本政府封禁。1909年7月,返沪任中国新公学等校教职,以民族思想灌输学生,其间因仇家以革命党陷害,清吏指名捕拿,仓卒间逃到杭州西湖白云庵为僧。在为僧期间,仍任浙学生创办的《越报》编辑,作发刊词,并撰《名说》,批判儒家的纲常名教思想。他在文中疾呼:“今之中国,已如大厦之将倾,非推去旧宇、重建鸿模,其何以历风霜而蔽风雨?故欲谋今日之中国,必先涤尽旧日之陈朽,以改良社会之观念。”而后始足“以铸造新国民,以竞争新世界。”这时期雷也发表了不少诗歌,在《题〈四川〉杂志》末尾写道:“强权世界风云惨,亡国名词父老思。一寸河山一寸泪,写来红润笔花枝。”在《忆蜀》中则表现诗人对故乡的怀念之情,其中吟曰:“哀鸿遍野草离离,怕说红羊浩劫时。岂独焚身高氏鬼,又逢哭庙汉家儿。三秋禾黍蜀官泪,五色花笺古井悲。白雪阳春和不得,萦怀故国总情痴。”

(二)

1908年底,雷铁崖由日本回国,寓居上海。他痛人心不醒,思借学校教育鼓吹革命,乃受聘于上海中国新公学任教,民国名人胡适也在该校任英语教师,胡与川藉学生但懋辛等人来往较多,因此与雷也有交往。1909年秋,端方在上海搜捕革命党人,雷铁崖被通缉。匆忙中雷向胡适借了床棉被,连夜赶到杭州白云庵出家,怀着“英雄失败只逃禅”的无奈心情遁入空门。每晚都睡不着,睡不着就写诗,以哀鸣啼血的杜鹃自况,用悲愤的歌声唤醒国人。诗作中充满了 “杜鹃夜半声凄绝,不是愁人也泪流”, “竖尽星旗思拍马,招来蜀魂再啼鹃”。“杜字啼红春欲泪.长弘化碧月留痕”“一寸山河一寸泪,啼来红润笔花枝”, “五月悲秋游子梦,三更啼月蜀王魂”; “身随野鹤饭金粟,心有啼鹃痛铁函”, “鹃因口瘁啼衔赤,烛为心伤泪堕红”之类的诗句。不仅四川党人读了要流泪,在南社中也广为传诵,博得了“啼鹃诗人”的美名。在《参禅白云古刹苦不能静诗以遣之》的长诗中,叙述他身坐蒲团,心却荡游;“忽刺秦皇胸,忽斩楼兰首。忽悲乌江驹,忽饮黄龙酒;或击祖生楫。或撞亚父斗;或恸钟期情,或泣任肪后。”有时坐着坐着,还忽然佯狂地唱起《满江红》来。后来他吟诵着“金戈铁马文明血,荆棘铜驼祖国秋。谁遣骄儿横海窟.阿童持节下龙舟”,乘槎去了南洋。

1910年7月,反清革命活动处于低潮,孙中山决定将南洋支部迁往马来西亚地区的槟榔屿。当时以孙中山为首的革命派,急需南洋华侨提供足够的财力、人力,以持续支持在华南地区的武装起义。这就需要大造革命舆论,来鼓动华侨捐资筹款。而此前革命派建立的“开明演说书报社”、《中兴日报》,已相继关闭和停刊,因此,孙中山决定创办《光华日报》。中山先生原想让胡汉民任总编,后考虑雷铁崖最恰当,便让胡邀请雷来槟榔屿,又让长兄孙眉到上海催促。1910年秋,雷从上海出发,经香港到南洋,筹组该报创刊,并由方次石、周杜鹃等人协助。《光华日报》的命名,为孙中山先生手定,意思是“光复华夏”。张群指出:“光华者,以光复中华为职志者也。光有二义,一曰光复,二曰光大。”“在清之季,革命力量集中于推翻满清帝制,故先破坏而后建设,宣传方针亦准此趋向,以努力创造环境,前仆后继,再接再厉,艰难险阻,百折不挠,卒能有所成就,收文字革命之功。”

《光华日报》于当年12月2日创刊后,即与《槟城新报》为首的保皇党报刊,展开激烈论战。在论战中,雷铁崖笔锋犀利,鞭辟入里,文笔极富鼓动性和震撼力。他不仅以社论长文制敌,还间以谐文、短论、幽默、小品、时评等灵活多样的形式出击,予论敌以重创。经过近100天的大论战,《槟城新报》招架不住,连换三任主笔,最后败下阵来。南洋华侨从此对雷非常敬重。革命派从而夺取了槟榔屿这块舆论阵地,并取代了新加坡成为同盟会海外革命指挥中心。其时,孙中山召开槟榔屿会议不久,即赴美洲各地劝募华侨,走前特请雷铁崖教授两女孙蜒孙婉国学。1911年底,孙蜒到美国留学。次年雷接到孙蜒从美国的来信,正打算回复时,却得到意外的消息:孙蜒因病回澳门已不治而逝,年仅19岁。悲痛之余,曾写诗悼曰:“一书绝笔悲无复,万里还乡病不知。噩耗骤闻伤往事,蛮风蜒雨学诗时”。雷铁崖主持《光华日报》一年有余,发表署名文章达278篇之多,长篇连载64次,诗作21首,加上旧作整理,几乎天天都有雷的作品见报。这是雷铁崖办报生涯中,最为辉煌的时期。该报畅销各地,一时洛阳纸贵。上海、广州、汕头、福州等地,多家报社代为销售,其设在香港、南洋和美洲等地的代理处,多达71个。国民党元老冯自由曾回忆说:“时总理远游欧美,黄克强、胡汉民均已他适。独次石与蜀人雷铁崖在报上大声急呼,发聋振聩,使英、荷两属侨胞之精神为之大振。”后来,南洋华侨在人力物力上大力支持孙中山,为国民革命作出了巨大贡献,其中雷铁崖的宣传鼓动,功不可没。

(三)

1912年元旦,中华民国政府在南京成立,孙中山被选为临时大总统,胡汉民任总统府秘书长,雷铁崖应邀担任秘书,并转邀好友柳亚子同往。柳受不了约束,以吃不惯西餐为借口,挂冠先去上海。只干了半个月,当时胡汉民等人主张对袁世凯和谈,雷铁崖极为不满,结果只干了半个月,也卷被辞职,索性到西湖游玩去了。走时写下一首诗:“一笑飘然去,霜风透骨寒。八年革命党,半月秘书官。稷下竽吹暂,邯郸梦已残。西湖山色好,莫让老憎看。”同年6月,雷铁崖回四川探亲。在轮船上,一位不堪主妇凌虐的幼婢,因过度疲惫而失足坠江,诗人为此悲愤难抑,在斥责封建专制的不平等后,面对大洋彼岸的自由民主先驱嗟谈:“共和虽云建,平等究何果。谣望美利坚,呜呼林肯颇。”回到故乡自流井,时隔八年,物是人非,心情十分复杂,他对此吟诗曰:“半肩行李带嚣尘,历遍风云剩此身。万里初归沧海客,十年重见故乡人。离家岂识桑田改,入境频惊景物新。望到闾门翻瑟缩,倦游季子旧时贫。”同年年底,雷铁崖应邀到北京,担任国民政府嵇勋局审议员,并参加垦植协会本部工作,同时兼代《民主报》主笔。

1913年3月20日,宋教仁在上海车站被刺。22日,雷铁崖发表《宋教仁被暗杀之研究》,抨击袁世凯政府为“暗杀政府”,“厉行专制,灭绝革命”。4月,袁世凯向英、法、日、德、俄五国签订善后大借款,他又著文斥“政府之罪恶”。 讨袁 “二次革命”失败后,袁世凯大肆控捕革命党人,身居北京的雷铁崖也受到监视,处境艰危。他在德国友人何德梅的帮助下,不久即潜离北京,经上海、福建转赴南洋,并于1914年5月在新加坡创办《国民日报》,继续从事反袁宣传。该报由雷铁崖和金碧梧主笔政,雷撰写了发刊词,紧接着发表长文《敬告南洋同志》,揭露袁世凯祸国殃民的罪行,劝导华侨再接再厉坚持革命,对那些势利而又投机的“准同志”,作了辛辣的讽刺和斥责。1915年1月17日,他又发表《梅袁同异论》,把袁世凯与恶魔梅特里(Metternich,1848年前奥地利外交大臣和首相)相提并论,说袁之侦探密布全国,“暗杀栽诬,万恶丛发”,其特务害民手段,较之梅特里“辣心毒手有过之无不及”。此后,他一发而不可收拾,继续写出大量诗文反袁,直到当年9月,《国民日报》因故停刊为止。

1916年6月,袁世凯病死,雷铁崖曾一度回到上海。鉴于当时政府受北洋军阀掌控,局势仍很混乱,雷只有重返新加坡。由于国事日非,忧怀难释,他就借酒浇愁,时在醉乡,终于渐成精神病态。只要有人提到国事,他就狂歌笑骂不止。南洋华侨于1919年2月护送雷回上海修养,后因再度发病,朋友只好将雷送回老家自流井。雷铁崖回乡后的晚景,据厚黑教主李宗吾所见,这位啼鹃诗人仍是“满肚皮不合时宜,对时事非常愤懑。旋得疯癫病,终日抱一瓶酒,逢人即乱说。常常独自一人,倒卧街中,人事不醒,警察看见把他弄回。”1920年5月8日,雷铁崖重病去世,终年48岁。“鹃因口瘁啼衔赤”,这位中国近代史上的志士仁人,死得非常凄清寂寞。1925年3月,上海《民国日报》在“征求雷铁崖先生诗文启事”中写道:他“坎坷一生,未尝稍贬其节”、“革命先觉,功成不居,蒿目时艰,卒以忧死”等语,对雷铁崖的一生,做了恰当的评价。

(四)

雷铁崖还是辛亥革命时期一位有成就的诗人,其书法也名噪学界。他同清末民初的重要革命文学团体“南社”及柳亚子等人关系密切。从1910年4月“南社”在西湖唐庄第二次雅集起,雷铁崖多次参加“南社”的集会和重要活动。柳亚子称他“工诗文书法”,大陆华东师范大学出版社印行的《雷铁崖集》一书中,收有一百余篇诗作。综观雷铁崖的诗歌作品,绝无旧时文人吟风弄月、无病呻吟之作,而是以爱国精神和革命宣传为主线。他前期去国怀想,游子苦吟,充满了对国家危亡和民生凋敝的忧愤之情。当国家面临列强侵略,人民在苦难中呻吟,而清朝统治者却一派歌舞升平,成天醉生梦死,“满座貂禅贺太平”,自然引起爱国者的愤懑。作为“激荡于新潮流,民族思想愈勃发不可遏”的诗人,以挺身而出拯救危亡为己任,他在《旅夜偶书》中吟道:“难国风尘奴隶泪,北听烽火虎狼兵。男儿不拯神州劫,辜负龙泉壁上鸣。”在《步剑华原韵》中写道:“渭水潮流归猛恶,骊山烽火伴登临。匈奴未灭家河有?无定河边莫苦吟。”同时,又以哀鸣啼血的杜鹃自况,用悲愤的歌声唤醒国人。诗作中充满了“杜鹃夜半声凄绝,不是愁人也泪流”, “竖尽星旗思拍马,招来蜀魂再啼鹃”。“杜字啼红春欲泪.长弘化碧月留痕”“一寸山河一寸泪,啼来红润笔花枝”, “五月悲秋游子梦,三更啼月蜀王魂”; “身随野鹤饭金粟,心有啼鹃痛铁函”, “鹃因口瘁啼衔赤,烛为心伤泪堕红”之类的诗句。不仅四川党人读了要流泪,在南社中也广为传诵,博得了“啼鹃诗人”的美名。

雷铁崖的后期诗歌,表现出对民主革命的不成功,充满了极为失望的情绪。由于辛亥革命不彻底,袁世凯“帝制自为,颠覆共和”,致使专制主义复辟。雷铁崖力主反袁,把这个“冢中枯骨”称黄之日,视为共和“出殡”之时。他怒斥这一独夫民贼“终使神皋归分擘,河山何处余寸尺”;他常表现出落寞、悲愤难平的心境,意识到民生问题的严峻与迫切,他在《彝陵夜泊》中写道:“国难未闻生卜式,闾闫安得稳高眠。”在回川的路上,他一面吟诵“漫嗟行路难,吾将归老矣”、“英雄仍作旧书生”;一面又放浪形骸,流连歌场声色,“妇人醇酒傲风尘”。他常借酒浇愁,吟诗作赋,继而乘醉狂书。他思想矛盾,报国无门,反映出当时一位忧国忧民诗人的复杂心情,也是中国近代志士仁人中悲剧性格的人物。这就注定了他的诗歌,具有苍劲沉凝而又凄婉悲壮的风格。

(source: 陈思逊 自贡市民间文艺家协会副主席, http://www.eyii.com/news/member/20071014/2729.html)

< Copyright © 一宁网 转载时请务必以超链接形式标明文章原始出处和作者信息 (http://www.eyii.com/news/member/20071014/2729.html ) / 陈思逊 自贡市民间文艺家协会副主席>

雷铁崖故居 & 雷铁崖墓

雷铁厓故居地址及位置:四川省自贡市贡井区长土镇石沟村 3 组,背靠池塘山,面向石头沟及东碳厂。北纬 29 21,东经 104 42,海拔高程 331.7 米。 雷铁压故居始建于清中期,坐北向南。占地面积约 3000 平方米。贡井名人辛亥革命志士雷铁压的祖宅,现存建筑面积 350平方米,原有上、中、下三厅,戏楼,左、右侧院构成,庭院式四层复四合院,木柱、半架结构、悬山式屋顶、屋脊灰塑宝顶,飞檐翘角,檐下雕梁画栋,门窗、撑仿、柱础均存雕功。现大部分布局改变、结构改变。雷家大房子修建一直是雷氏家族住宅,解放时政府接收分给村民居住,部分留给雷家子孙。雷铁压从政府辞职回乡,居住于雷家大房子老宅并在老宅病逝,去世后即葬在雷家大房子左侧坡地上。该院落1957 年中厅被焚毁,由于村民修拆建布局和结构大变,现仅剩后厅一列正房,面阔 5 间 23 米,进深 3 间 13 . 28 米。 2006 年 7 月,贡井区将雷家大院及雷铁压墓公布不可移动文物点。

“原来这个院子很大,有八个天井,几十间屋,现在雷家的人都搬走了……这的确是一座大院子,但已经残破不堪得让人感到苍凉。不过,其高耸的屋脊和有着精美浮雕的挑撑依稀可见曾经的风光。老人热心地指着大院东面荒坡中一小快草地说,“这就是雷铁崖的坟”。我们都感到吃惊:这哪像个坟啊?既无垒土,更无墓碑,分明是一堆荒草嘛!我们虔心暴走半天而来,就权当它是铁崖墓吧!(http://zg.sced.cn/htmls/20110415163055.html)


可怜的民主革命,可悲的革命家.....

可悲的中国....自豪的经济成就,甚至不能保护自己的文化遗产, 革命家雕像,故居; 中国人已忘记了这位革命家 .....遗憾, 遗憾.....

也就是槟城人的失望....

雷铁崖是槟城光華日報第一任總編輯(1910-1912), 现在, 《光华日报》已经成为世界華文報業新聞史上發行歷史最久的華文日報.....世界曆史最久之民營華文報...

《光華日報》创刊社址是120号打铜仔街(120, Armenian Street, Penang), 如今是孫中山檳城基地紀念館.

槟城人不会忘记雷铁崖(Lei Tieya).....

References & Further Study:

1. 历史学家:1220是创刊纪念日 百年前今天《光华日报》诞生, http://cnews.cari.com.my/news.php?id=7871
2. 石头沟里闻啼鹃 暴走铁崖故居, http://zg.sced.cn/htmls/20110415163055.html
3. 被遗忘在垃圾堆的大总统秘书, http://club.kdnet.net/dispbbs.asp?boardid=1&id=6974695&page=1&1=1#6974695
4. 孙中山与《光华日报》(下),谢诗坚, http://www.kwongwah.com.my/index.php?view_type=news&date=20101220&id=24
5. 拜谒吴玉章故居 纪念辛亥革命,http://zg.sced.cn/htmls/20110415160635.html
6. 谢奉琦故居设立标牌, http://www.dgjjq.com/show.php?cid=2&classid=2&id=297
7. 大公井古盐文化旅游区, http://www.dgjjq.com/list.php?cid=3
8. 雷铁崖, http://www.phoer.net/people/l/leitieya.htm

Friday, November 25, 2011

November 11th, Memorial Day for Nanyang Transport Volunteers and the Martyrs of the World War II

The memorial was familiar to me since my childhood days, whenever you go to Air Itam,or Penang Hill,you will never miss the monument. But not many know the purpose of building up the monument there. Some said it was a war memorial, a monument to remember the death of the civilian who died during the war. Some said it was for the resistance soldiers. The story of the monument had been forgotten, and everyone treated as a normal war memorial. But the people who come to pay respect on 11th November each year, was not from the uniform, but the normal civilian. The purpose of the memorial was for world peace, it is a peace memorial, and also to remember the people who died during the 2nd World War. It is also specially mentioned about the voluntary transport workers who died at the Burma Road in Yunnan who come from Penang, and Malaysia. That is why it is called Penang Chinese War Memorial for the Nanyang Transport Volunteers and the Martyrs of the World War II(槟榔屿华侨抗战殉职机工和罹难同胞纪念碑).

My son have been witnessing the ceremony each year, being a member of Chong Hwa Confucius School band until he completed his secondary school. My uncle was also there each year, witnessing the event. There are many descendants of the Transport volunteers, who are there in the crowd, without noticed by any others. But sad to say I have not witness the event personally until today.

It was on 11-11-2011 at 11a.m., our chief minister Lim Guan Eng officiated the 60th anniversary ceremony. The year 2011 was different; the people of Penang and Penang state government have donated to facelift the memorial park. Three additional features are added. Among the new features are a memorial model of the transport workers pushing a military truck up a hill slope along the Burma – Yunnan Road, a memorial wall with carvings displaying the transport volunteers and trucks being bombed by the plane of Japanese Imperial Army, the third feature was the memorial column featuring pigeons circulating around the column, which resemble the world peace.

It was great event when we can come together to remember the people who died during the war. As I have just come back from Japan and visited the Nagasaki Peace Park and Hiroshima Peace Park. By attending the ceremony it gave me a very meaningful day. It also bring awareness to the people who may have forgotten the monument. The family of transport volunteers from Yunnan was also there. But is was pity that the organization committee did not give them a public introduction. The grandson of Mr.Tan Kah Kee(陈嘉庚), the man involved personally with the Transport Volunteers project. A public introduction will be more significant.

In the afternoon, I attended the dialogue by the family of the transport volunteers from Yunnan, and the grandson of Mr.Tan Kah Kee(陈嘉庚). The timing was not right, as it was in collision with the night event at the war memorial at Air Itam. It seems that there are not many people aware of the event. Other than our family, some retired teachers, and one Chinese cultural expert, Chang Yong Mee. The attendance was sadly low. If this type of event were held at other place, especially east coast, it will normally be full house. Sadly not Penang. The stories given by the family are very touching, each have their own unique story. Some of them still searching for the long lost family in Malaysia.

In 1939, 3,200 young men from South-East Asia, historically was called Nanyang(南洋) by Chinese, most were from Malaya, left their families and homes voluntarily to travel to China to work as drivers and mechanics during the Sino-Japanese War of 1937-1945. They left in 15 batches with 9 of 15 batches leaving from Singapore. The volunteers are called Nangiao ji gong(南侨机工)or “overseas Chinese mechanics”. One third of them lost their life in Yunan, one third returned to Malaya, the remaining one third left in Yunan, China. These 3200 volunteers included Indian, Malay men and four Chinese women. There were 300 volunteers from North Malaya of Penang, Kedah and Perlis, of which 233 were from Penang. I really hope their names will be listed at the memorial wall at the War monument at Air Itam. The list included Li Yue Mei (李月美) who was known as modern Hua Mu Lan(当代花木兰), as she also disguised as a man to serve in the Nanyang Transport Volunteers as a driver, just like the ancient Chinese woman heroine. Sadly she died during the cultural revolution in China.

Two of the family members, Xu Hongji(徐宏基) and Zhang Yunpeng(张云鹏), they are searching for their family in Muar, Johor. The other VIPs presented were Honorary Chairman(名誉会长)Chen Liren(陈立人),Chairman(会长), Lin Xiaochang(林晓昌),Tang Xiaomei(汤晓梅), historian(机工史学者),Vice chairman(副会长), Wang Shuilin (王水林), photographer(著名纪录片摄影师)与Lin Suwei(林素玮), artist(名画家).

Thank you state government, the state assemblyman Wong Hun Wei, and the Kong Ming Main Chinese Primary School(公民国民型华文小学总校), the trustee of the monument, that make the event a memorial one. Also the faithful Chong Hwa Confucius School band(孔圣庙中华中学军铜乐队), which has been playing music for the event for many years without fail.

Calling for the families of the volunteers

萧瑞兴(大山脚)、王海南(槟城)、刘桂华(槟)、谢允和(槟)、吴家香(大山脚)、吴明(双溪大年)、杨境南(吉打)、邝广源(吉打莪仑)、余德峇(吉打莪仑)及杨大胜(吉打), 柯天和、王天德、林猷川、王宁鸭、纪兰花及林树容等。

If you know any family of transport volunteers, please contact Low Toh nam(刘道南), 012-521 7412. He was a volunteer in Ipoh, who gathered information for his historical project.



童年(Childhood)

This was the song my younger brother loved during his school days. It was in the 80s. At that time I just started working, naturally there was a generation gap. But the song seems to attract my attention, and it become my favorite melody, despite the fact that I am still not able to sing the full song until today.

I do not know whether my brother still remember this song....



童年

作曲 & 作詞︰羅大佑
=================

池塘邊的榕樹上,知了在聲聲叫著夏天;
操場邊的鞦韆上,只有蝴蝶停在上面。

黑板上老師的粉筆,還在拼命吱吱喳喳寫個不停;
等待著下課,等待著放學,等待遊戲的童年。

福利社裡面什麼都有,就是口袋裡沒有半毛錢;
諸葛四郎和魔鬼黨,到底誰搶到那隻寶劍?

隔壁班的那個男孩,怎麼還沒經過我的窗前;
嘴裡的零食,手裡的漫畫,心裡初戀的童年。

總是要等到睡覺前,才知道功課只做了一點點;
總是要等到考試以後,才知道該唸的書都沒有唸。

一寸光陰一寸金,老師說過寸金難買寸光陰;
一天又一天,一年又一年,迷迷糊糊的童年。

沒有人知道為什麼,太陽總下到山的那一邊;
沒有人能夠告訴我,山裡面有沒有住著神仙。

多少的日子裡總是一個人,面對著天空發呆;
就這麼好奇,就這麼幻想,這麼孤單的童年。

陽光下蜻蜓飛過來,一片片綠油油的稻田;
水彩蠟筆和萬花筒,畫不出天邊那一條彩虹。

什麼時候才能像高年級的同學?有張成熟與長大的臉;
盼望著假期,盼望著明天,盼望長大的童年。

哦 .... 一天又一天,一年又一年,盼望長大的童年。

我有一段情

我有一段情 1957 (吳鶯音)


我有一段情(蔡琴)


我有一段情

曲 : 姚敏 / 詞 : 陳蝶衣

我有一段情呀,說給誰來聽,
知心人兒呀出了門,他一去呀沒音訊。

我的有情人呀,莫非變了心,
為什麼呀斷了信,我等待呀到如今。

夜又深呀月又明,只能懷抱七絃琴,
彈一曲呀唱一聲,唱出我的心頭恨。

我有一段情呀,唱給春風聽,
春風替我問一問,為什麼他要斷音訊。

Please also view the youtube, sing by both of them(吳鶯音 & 蔡琴 ), very touching and meaningful film, but it was not allow to embed in the blog.

吳鶯音. 蔡琴_ 我有一段情, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3dOBhzSYZnI&feature=related

Thursday, November 24, 2011

綠島小夜曲

綠島小夜曲 should be the state song of Penang, if not at least it is my unofficial state song. I have been away from Penang for more than 20 years, and this song will always remind me of my hometown, Penang. The song had been with me since the 60s, the first time I heard of this song was during my uncle's wedding, when his friend sung for the newly wed. I love the melody and the wordings, it may be a love song, but it also reflect the feeling of the travellers who are away from home, longing for returning to the homeland.

It tell you the story of an island, like my hometown Penang. The song of the green island, Penang

....and that is the only song that I can sing and remember until today.....



綠島小夜曲

曲 : 周藍萍 / 詞 : 潘英傑

這綠島像一只船 在月夜裏搖啊搖
姑娘呀 你也在我的心海裏飄啊飄
讓我的歌聲隨那微風 吹開了你的窗簾
讓我的衷曲隨那流水 不斷地向你傾訴
椰子樹的長影 掩不住我的情意
明媚的月光 更照亮了我的心
這綠島的夜已經這樣沉靜
姑娘喲 你為什麽還是默默無語


椰子樹的長影 掩不住我的情意
明媚的月光 更照亮了我的心
這綠島的夜已經這樣沉靜
姑娘喲 你為什麽還是默默無語

Tuesday, November 15, 2011

Binlang Yu(檳榔嶼) in Taiwan

Binlang Yu(檳榔嶼)was an old Chinese name for today's Penang Island. It was reported that the name was given by Admiral Zheng He of Ming dynasty during his expeditions to the South Sea in 15th Century.

By chance, I come across an article in the web, telling the story of another Binlang Yu(檳榔嶼 )in China. Politically the island belong to Taiwan. It is a small island. The island is located between Amoy or Xiamen(廈門)and Kinmen or Jinmen(金門). The other name for the island is Matsu Island(媽祖島), the name called by local people of Amoy(but not to confuse with The Matsu Islands(马祖列岛), a minor archipelago of 19 islands and islets in the Taiwan Strait administered as Lienchiang County (連江縣)).

This really surprise me. Officially it is called Zhong Hwa Binlang Yu(中华槟榔屿), Chinese Betel Nut Island.

Location of Xiamen(PR China), Kinmen Island and Penghu Island(ROC Taiwan)

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Map of Binlangyu

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Yu(嶼)in Chinese means island, Binlang(檳榔) is the name for betel nut. Taiwan and Penang was having popular habit of eating betel nut in the old days. Even today, betel nut is still popular in Taiwan, despite the habit is dying in Penang. Penang and Taiwan have betel nut culture. Logically it is not surprise to see the name of island named after betel nut.

Kinmen or Jinmen(金門)

Kinmen, also known as Jinmen and formerly as Quemoy, is a small archipelago of several islands administered by the Republic of China (Taiwan): Greater Kinmen, Lesser Kinmen, and some islets.

Administratively, it is Kinmen County of Fujian Province, ROC. The county is claimed by the People's Republic of China (PRC) as part of its own Fujian Province's Quanzhou Prefecture. Some islands of other counties, such as Wuchiu, were transferred to the jurisdiction of Kinmen County by the ROC government following its civil war defeat and retreat to Taiwan. Matsu(马祖列岛)is the other set of islands on the Fujian coast controlled by the ROC.

Many Taiwanese businesspeople use the link through Kinmen to enter the Chinese Mainland as it is seen as cheaper and easier than entering through Hong Kong. However, this changed following the 2005 Pan-Blue visits to mainland China and the presidential and legislative victories of the KMT, that allowed easier Cross-Strait relations. Kinmen has experienced a considerable economic boom as businesspeople relocate to the island for easier access to the vast markets of the People's Republic of China.

Map of Kinmen County(金門縣)


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Today, the Kinmen County consist of Jincheng Township(金城鎮)、Jinhu Township(金湖鎮)、Jinsha Township(金沙鎮)、Jinning Township(金寧鄉)、Lieyu Township(烈嶼鄉)、Wuqiu Township(烏坵鄉). The first three are urban township or Zhen(鎮)and the last three are xiang(rural township鄉), so there are 3 urban township and 3 rural townships(三鎮三鄉).

All townships in Greater Kinmen Island are with their names start with Jin (金), which means "gold". Jincheng Township(金城鎮)、Jinhu Township(金湖鎮)、Jinsha Township(金沙鎮)、Jinning Township(金寧鄉). All these golden townships are in the Kinmen Island proper(金門島)or Greater Kinmen(大金門).

Wuqiu Township(烏坵鄉) comprises Greater Qiu Islet (大坵) and Lesser Qiu Islet (小坵).The location of the township, was closer to Taiwan island, and near to Meizhou Island(湄洲岛), Xiuyu District(秀屿), of Putian(莆田市), a prefecture level City. Meizhou Island is the legendary birthplace of the goddess Matsu and a famous pilgrimage site. The township, unlike other Kinmen townships is far away from the kinmen Island. The exact location can be seen from the map at Wuciou Township Office official website, http://www.kinmen.gov.tw/MultiMedia_ImageResize.ashx?guid=404cf53a-fa1b-4806-aaa9-88bbec7d2c40

Lieyu Township(烈嶼鄉)encompasses the entire Lesser Kinmen Island, it is next to Kinmen island(Big Kinmen), and is the closest to Xiamen. Lieyu Township (烈嶼鄉), commonly known as Lesser Kinmen (小金門) is located to the Southwest of main Kinmen Island in between main Kinmen and Xiamen. It is situated outside the mouth of mainland China's Jiulong river and inside Xiamen's harbor. The distance from mainland China at the closest point is only about 5000 meters and is located in a very strategic position. Lieyu also administers Dadan (大擔) and Erdan (二擔) islands, respectively 5 and 6 km to the southwest, Bilang Yu(檳榔嶼), and other islets. In 1950, Dadan was the site of a minor battle in the Chinese Civil War, "Battle of Islet Dadan". Tseng chenggong or Koxinga(郑成功)trained his anti-Manchu soldiers at the Dadan islets.

(烈嶼,又稱小金門,位於金門本島西南西方,居於金門與廈門之間。位處於中國福建省東南隅的九龍江口外、廈門灣內,並包括大膽島、二膽島、復興嶼、猛虎嶼、獅嶼,檳榔嶼等諸小島。距離中國大陸最近的島嶼僅約0.5公里,在戰略位置上可以說是「外島中的外島,前線中的前線」)

Binlang Yu(檳榔嶼) is small islet, but a development project with the inter-strait cooperation by mainland China and Taiwan is now taking place, it may be the good sign for strait relationship. In no time, the islet will be another tourism spot.

Hokkien dialects(福建话)

Southern Fujian is home to three main Hokkien dialects. They are known by the geographic locations to which they correspond (listed north to south):

Quanzhou (Chinchew, 泉州)
Xiamen (Amoy, 廈門), which is the mixture of Quanzhou and Zhangzhou.
Zhangzhou (Changchew, 漳州)

Many of the county's inhabitants speak Hokkien. Due to their previous political isolation, most residents will say they speak "Kinmenese", as opposed to "Taiwanese" as it is commonly called in Taiwan, though the two dialects are mutually intelligible. It is geographically very near Xiamen, no more than 2 kilometers. Taiwanese Hokkien is generally similar to Xiamen. Minor differences only occur in terms of vocabulary. Like Xiamen, Taiwanese Hokkien is based on a mixture of Zhangzhou and Quanzhou speech. The residents of Wuchiu Township however speak Puxian Min, as opposed to Hokkien for the rest of Kinmen. Wuchiu Township is not close to Kinmen Island, it is far from Xiamen and close to Putian.

Penang Hokkien (槟城福建话) is a local variant of Hokkien spoken in Penang, Malaysia. It is the lingua franca among the majority Chinese population in Penang as well as other northern states of Malaysia surrounding it, and is characterised by the pronunciation of words according to the Zhangzhou (漳州) dialect, together with widespread use of Malay and English borrowed words.

So with both Kinmen and Penang speak the Minnan dialect, linguistically they are the same, even with some tainted by local influence of Malay and English(Penang), and Japanese(Taiwan), they are still mutually communicable. It is not surprise to name an island Binlang Yu.

I am wondering if Admiral Zheng He had been to Xiamen, and visited Binglang Yu like Koxinga. He named Penang after Binlang Yu of Xiamen, now Kinmen. Pulau Pinang or Penang was named after direct translation of Binlang Yu. Can Betel nut and the name of Betel Nut Island(Penang)be from Taiwan?.....

So next time, if you meet a Chinese who said he is from Binlang Yu, do not mistaken that he is from Penang, Malaysia. He may be from Binlang Yu, Kinmen, Taiwan.

Kinmen People in Malaysia(大马金门人)

金门人大马奋斗史


紀錄片落番 探金門人移民南洋史


There are Kinmen clan association or Kimmui kongsi, in Johor(馬來西亞柔佛州金同廈會館)、Malacca(馬六甲金門會館)、Selangor(巴生雪蘭莪金門會館).

槟榔同安金厦公会. Tong Aun Kim Har Association. 22, Lebuh Melayu, 10100 Penang. Tel: 604-261 0013, Fax: 604-261 0013.

I wonder is there any Kimmui clanhouse(金門會館)in Penang? and what is the number of Kimmui lang in Penang?....

Tan Sri Dato' Seri Yeoh Tiong Lay(楊忠禮), the founder of YTL Corporation Berhad, his son Tan Sri Dato' Seri (Dr) Francis Yeoh Sock Ping(楊肅斌)are famous Kimmui personality in Malaysia.

Kimmui Lang in Penang must be proud that the name of Penang is similar to an island in Kinmen.

If you feel like visiting another Penang in Kinmen, the following video may be useful for you.



If you can read Chinese, please visit 中华槟榔屿_互动百科, http://www.hudong.com/wiki/檳榔嶼;中华槟榔屿特别试验区揭牌仪式, http://www.gctaiwan.com/tequ/GB/201027/377.html; http://taconet.pixnet.net/blog/post/30707237-關注檳榔嶼的開發

槟榔屿,位于东经118°11’,北纬24°26’,是金门与厦门的中间岛,历史上曾经由金门县烈屿乡管辖。槟榔屿的面积约2.09万平方米。厦门百姓口头流传一则故事,说金门士兵将国民党旗插在岛上,我们看不顺眼,就划着小船,将他的旗子扳倒,插上我们的五星红旗。第二天,发现五星红旗被他们换掉了,于是又划着小船过去……。这样,他一来我一返,一连多次,双方都疲惫了,小岛上也就不再出现旗子。再后来,大陆与金门百姓常将小船停靠在那个岛屿上交换物品,小小的岛屿成了两地民间联系交流的桥梁。

曾经炮火连天,而今渔舟唱晚。恩怨云烟过眼,两岸本为一家。槟榔屿,这把金灿灿的钥匙,已经悄悄打开了两岸的“和平之门”、“和解之门”、“合作之门”。

2010年6月11日,金厦经济特区促进联盟正式更名为中华槟榔屿特别试验区。2009年12月12日,在海峡两岸民间团体、热心人士的积极推动下,“金厦经济特区促进联盟”在厦门大嶝岛金门湾大酒店正式启动。启动大会一致推选台湾光彩促进会会长骆宏宾先生担任主席,厦门市侨乡经济促进会会长苏福伦先生担任执行主席,海峡电力发展股份有限公司总经理班晓东担任秘书长。

References:
1. 新加坡金门会馆, http://www.kimmui.com/
2. 烈嶼風情, http://www.jhes.km.edu.tw/902005/
3. 來去烈嶼, http://tw.myblog.yahoo.com/princess-michelle/article?mid=2138&prev=2617&next=2046&sc=1
4. Islet Dadan, http://www.jhes.km.edu.tw/lieyu/english/content4/triver16.htm

Tuesday, November 8, 2011

客家本色 - 林于雯

客家世界



客家世界 (客家電視台台歌)

就像大雨後个天弓 紅鑼花色高掛在空中
希望摁个世界 多姿多彩 多情多義多笑容
紅男綠女歡歡喜喜 牽手鬧洋洋
這係客家世界 祥人个地方 等汝來聊做英雄

阿公啊 挨弦仔 阿婆就來唱山歌
句句唱出 客家个智慧

摁係 現代个客家人 世界个客家人
摁有 豐富又精采个 客家文化呦
摁係 快樂个客家人 實在个客家人
摁要 剎忙打拼 共心開創 客家世界 呦呦得呦

鮮鮮个河水 流向那大海
日久他鄉變故鄉 管汝哪位來

Wednesday, November 2, 2011

Expert: Sadness that we cannot protect our heritage

张少宽:夷平盖房建楼 槟60%古墓让路发展

2011-03-07 13:12

(槟城6日讯)根据民间学者所作的田野调查显示,槟岛原有的20多座百年大家族墓群,已经有超过60%被摧毁殆尽,余下的不到40%预料也将随时遭发展巨轮碾过。

届时,珍贵的槟岛华人史第一手资料将全数成为浮尘碎瓦,价值连建筑在墓地遗址上高楼大厦的一片砖瓦都不如,成为华人社会无法挽回的损失。

谢氏家族冢保存完好

目前,槟岛尚保存完好的墓群仅剩下位于白云山福建公冢后山,葬有闽帮代表人物谢昭盼及其子谢德顺(时钟分校原址“五层楼”故主)等人的谢氏家族冢,以及坐落在天德园的邱氏家族冢等区区数处,而最具代表性的辜氏家族冢(葬有甲必单辜礼欢、祥德路因其得名的辜尚达等)也于不久前因屋业发展被摧毁。

将毕生精力从事在华人史田野研究,并曾经出版《槟榔屿华人史话》等多本著作的民间学者张少宽告诉《南洋商报》,葬在槟岛各家族冢的人物大多在19世纪末、20世纪初赫赫有名,包括大商贾、华社代表、英政府机构的高职公务员、帮派领袖等等,他们参与的历史事件可远溯至槟岛开埠、槟城大暴动、孙中山的革命运动至马来亚独立前后,在槟岛的华人史甚至槟城历史上留有珍贵的印迹。

墓群是时代缩影

张少宽说,每座坟墓都是一个时代的缩影,尤其是槟岛大宗族或家族的墓群,因此,无论是墓碑或者坟墓里的陪葬品,对支离破碎的华人史研究而言,都是非常珍贵的文物。

“墓碑上的文字,可说是记载了比起一些史料更为详细的年份、家族关系、人名,过去由于口述历史所出现的失误,可以靠着墓碑上的资料对比纠正。”

陪葬品还原历史原貌

他透露,不同墓碑的造型,也显示出不同帮群的风格,而且随着不同的时代变化;同时,凭着对墓中陪葬品的考证,能够更加忠实还原历史人物的面貌和社会地位,具有考古价值。

“我们可以说,这些坟墓实际上都是一个时代和文化的缩影,是独一无二的史料。”

珍贵史料化为尘埃 学者疾呼难引共鸣

张少宽说,在寸土如金的槟岛,墓群被夷平建筑住宅一事其实可以理解,然而在此之前,这些墓群应该先被记录、考察,将相关的史料以影像或其他方式保存。

“可是放眼槟岛,从事此类型研究的人少之又少,官方也没有给予适当的重视,最终只能白白看着这些史料化为尘埃。”

他曾经多次呼吁华社乡团宗社重视此问题,但微弱呼声无法激发其华社的注意。

变高楼住宅区

槟岛接二连三发生古墓群被发展摧毁,或者即将摧毁的事件,其中,甲必丹辜礼欢家族墓群被草率拾金摧毁,以及甘嫲园甘氏姐妹家族墓群或也难逃发展劫数;然而实际上,类似事件早在1960年代已发生,首个被摧毁的即是孙中山的支持者、华侨革命分子吴世荣的家族墓群。

张少宽透露,陆续被夷为平地盖房的尚有家族墓群包括胡丰成(丰盛园)、邱四方(四方园)、邱石泉(怡和园)等人的墓群,现在都已经被发展为高楼住宅区。

梁超明:先进国立法保护 坟场变公园绿肺

槟州古迹信托基金会荣誉秘书梁超明指出, 在一个备有完善城市策划图的城市里,摧毁历史古坟是不被允许的。

“任何土地利用性质的改换,都会被法律的严格管控监督。”

他透露,在先进国,坟场和公园通常会被规划为城市绿肺,甚至转为休闲跑步公园,作为减少过度人口密度的一个方法;如有道路扩建工程需征用,文物古迹都会另地安置或蓄意弯道迁就。

“奈何,目前我们还无法摒弃落后国家的发展心态,以破旧换新为荣。”

民间团体势单力薄

他说,古迹信托会曾不久前提议州政府对州内的历史古坟和纪念碑进行纪录和保护工作,期望国内的重要文物遗产,能被城市策划局、国家档案、历史研究会、文化遗产部门、大学等官方机构来做有系统性的数码化纪录,甚至维修保护等工作。

“在欧美中日印等重视古迹的国度里,这些都是官方推动的文物保护工作,绝非业余性民间团体可代劳。”

(source: 南洋商报 李嘉雯独家报道(http://www.nanyang.com.my/node/339444)

Tuesday, November 1, 2011

Alternative views

There are always the other side of the story, there are always alternative views. Events and history will not happen in isolation, it was the result of the interaction between people, institutions, countries and environments. Some people become hero, just happen to be there, some people participated in the righteous agenda, but failed on the way, may be the timing is not right, or people are not ready to buy his ideas. Some people are capable to take opportunities and manipulate the situation to his advantages, and become a winner.

Sepuluh Tahun Sebelum Merdeka from fahmi reza on Vimeo.



Revolusi '48 (2008) documentary trailer from fahmi reza on Vimeo.





It was history, whether you like it or not; it was the real events that really happen in the past; the people were real. It may not meet some people's agenda, some of them may failed in their doing, for perceived good or bad, it was our history, you like it or not.....

They are part of our heritage, part of our history, they may not be a superman in popular culture, may not be idols in our political history, they may have gone unnoticed, forgotten, despised, hated, or even imprisoned or died on the way....

They are still our history, our real history; no one can take them away.....

Some become President of a new nation, some become a literature figure, some become a unionist, successful doctors, lawyers; some was forced away from their country, and returned only at old age; some died on the way of their struggle; some was disappointing for not able to achieve their objective, died of sadness and disappointment, yet some changed their path and become a millionaires or national leaders, having all glories and popularity.

Bad or good, it is for us to judge, in our individual way; no one will have the same view. We have alternative views, different views, no wrong or right, it was our history. No one can robbed away......and erased them from history....

wrong or right, does it matter to an individual? when it was all over, and when he was old and may no longer around. The implication of their involvement or their historical significance, it is for historian and future generation to judge.....

And only time can give them their ultimate destination, after 100 years, 200 years, or 1,000 years.....

Friday, October 28, 2011

Lebuh Tek Soon (Tek Soon Lane)



abandoned pre-war shophouses, with some in ruins and overgrown with shrubs. This is right in the middle of the city. In actual fact this area has been ear-marked for re-development. Technically this is on Lebuh Tek Soon (Tek Soon Lane), ending at Jalan Maxwell (Maxwell Road), just south of the Prangin Canal and the former Prangin Market. Looks like this area has been forgotten.

Sunday, October 9, 2011

Huanghuakang Uprising(黄花岗起义) & Luo Zhong Huo(罗仲霍)

That day, when I stand at the entrance of Huanghua Gang Commemoration Park (黄花岗公园), located at 79, Xianlie Zhonglu, Guangzhou(广州市先烈中路79号). That was the time when Guangzhou was having Asian Games in 2010. My heart was filled with excitement, this is the place that I longed to come since my primary school day, when I read about the history of Huanghuakang Uprising. The first step that I walked into the park, the parallel lines of flowers plots that greeted me, at the end of the flower plots is the cemetery of the 72 martyrs. Actually is more than 72. The uprising was planned in Penang, and there were some Penang people who died in the uprising. The uprising in the place far from Penang, which was closely connected to the island, and it was the event that was later changed the whole of China and Asia...

Many have forgotten the Huanghuakang Uprising, Malayan school history textbook no longer teach the history, even the Chinese younger generation may not remember the event. This is how the history may be lost in time....

I told my daughter of what had happen in 1911, how a man and many men and women, and some from Penang, was involved in the uprising. She seems not to understand the significance of the event. To her the heroes who died in the event is not as important as the popular idols in Korean movies or Hollywood movies. The history has seem to lost their battle with popular culture in the internet era. But at least she listen and try to understand. May be to her,they have never experience the bloody political historical event, they lived in the peaceful era. They may not understand the era, it was too far for them, 100 years ago....at least she take time to search for the names of the people and institution who contribute financially or with their own life....

I was born during the colonial days, WW2 was during my parent's time, and my dear grandmother used to talk about the Xinhai Revolution(辛亥革命), she was born during the era. I read about the history, and Dr Sun Yat-sen was having Penang Conference at the place walking distance from where I was born....I can feel the tempo of the historical event.....and the first place I want to visit in Guangzhou is Huanghua Gang Commemoration Park (黄花岗公园)...and I remember the first time in Kuala Lumpur during my school day hitchhike, when we visited National Monument in Lake Garden. It was the same feeling.....Suddenly it become so familiar and close to heart...



Huanghuakang Uprising(黄花岗起义)

Yellow Flower Mound revolt (黃花岡之役, 黄花岗起义) or (黃花崗起義/黄花岗起义) also known as the Second Guangzhou uprising (辛亥廣州起義/辛亥广州起义) is an uprising led by Zhao Shen(趙聲, 1881-1911) and Huang Xing(黃興, 1876-1916) and his fellow revolutionaries against the Qing Dynasty in Guangzhou.

On 13 November 1910, Sun Yat-sen, along with several leading figures of the Tongmenhui—such as Zhao Shen, Huang Hsing, Hu Hanmin, and Deng Zeru, gathered for a conference at Penang in British Malaya. Having experienced countless failures in previous uprisings, they plotted a decisive battle in Guangzhou against the Qing Government.

On 27 April, Zhao Shen and Huang Hsing commenced the uprising in Guangzhou.

More than 130 people were led by Huang Xiang to attack the government offices for one day and a night. Lin Juemin(林覺民), Yu Peilun, Lin Shishuang and many other heroes gave their lives in the process. Revolutionaries fought fiercely with the Qing Army in the streets, but the rebels were eventually outnumbered and lost. Lin Juemin(林覺民), Yu Peilun, Lin Shishuang and many other heroes gave their lives in the process.





黃花岗七十二烈士名录:

廣東:徐佩旒,徐禮明,徐日培,徐廣滔,徐臨端,徐茂燎,徐松根,徐滿凌,徐昭良,徐培添,徐保生,徐廉輝,徐容九,徐進照,徐褶成,徐應安,李炳輝,李 晚,李文楷,李文甫,李雁南,陳春,陳潮,陳文褒,羅仲霍,羅坤,龐雄,周華,游壽,江繼復,郭繼枚,勞培,杜鳳書,余東雄,馬侶,黃鶴鳴,饒輔廷,張學 銓,周增,林修明;

福建:方聲洞,馮超驤,羅乃琳,卓秋元,黃忠炳,王燦登,胡應升,林覺民,林西惠,林尹民,林文,林時爽,劉六符,劉元棟,魏金龍,陳可鈞,陳更新,陳與焱,陳清疇,陳發炎;

廣西:韋樹模,韋榮初,韋統淮,韋統鈐,李德山,林盛初;

四川:秦炳,喻培倫,饒國梁;

安徽:程良,宋玉琳,石德寬。

華僑:黃花崗諸位烈士,有近卅人是新加坡、馬來西亞華僑。其中,羅仲霍、周華、李雁南和陳文褒來自馬來西亞檳城。 李炳煇、郭繼枚、余東雄來自馬來西亞霹靂州。習慣只寫上祖籍,分入廣東、福建。

The remains of 72 rebels were later collected by members of Tongmenhui and interred together at Huanghuagang or Yellow flower Hill(黃花岡). He was Pan Dawei(潘达微), a member of the Hongmenhui or Alliance Society, who risked his life to bury 72 of the martyrs at Huanghuagang in the Tomb of 72 Martyrs in Guangzhou. The martyrs were commemorated as the "72 martyrs". But actually it was more that 72, it reported 86 martyrs, but historically it is still popularly called 72 martyrs. Tomb of 72 Martyrs or Mausoleum of the 72 Martyrs in Guangzhou was built in 1918. The monument was to pay homage to the martyrs who died in the Huanghuakang Uprising, Guangzhou mutiny on April 27, 1911 against the Qing dynasty.

Dr Sun Yat sen, the Father of China, reported that the event is as important as Wuchang Uprising.

"是役也,碧血橫飛,浩氣四塞,草木為之含悲,風雲因而變色,全國久蟄之人心,乃大興奮。怨憤所積,如怒濤排壑,不可遏抑,不半載而武昌之大革命以成。則斯役之價值,直可驚天地、泣鬼神,與武昌革命之役並壽。"

Some historians believe that the uprising was a direct cause of the Wuchang uprising(武昌起義), which eventually led to the Xinhai Revolution(辛亥革命) and the founding of the Republic of China.

The "72 martyrs" included 30 from British Malaya, four of them was reported to be from Penang, Luo Zhong Huo(罗仲霍,1881-1911)、Zhou Hua(周华, ?-1911)、Li Yannan(李雁南, 1880-1911) and Chen Wen-bao(陳文褒, 1880-1911). Other than Luo, the background of the others were not clear.

Luo Zhong Huo(罗仲霍,1881-1911)

Luo Zhong Huo's ancestral home was from Lianfengcun(联丰村), Baihuazhen(白花镇), Huidongg(惠东县), Huizhou(惠州市), Guangdong广东省, China. His uncle was a general in Taiping Rebellion. He was a teacher in the village, but later left the village to seek for job in Annam and various towns in Nanyang. (罗仲霍名璋,号则君,惠东白花镇联丰村人。其堂叔祖罗添,是太平天国农民起义军的将领.早年在家乡授徒为业。后赴安南(今越南)及南洋各埠读书、寻找职业). He left China in 1901.

1903 to 1907
He arrived in Penang in 1903, enrolled into Chong Hwa School(中华学堂)school, and at at the mean time also wrote for the local newspaper to meet his living expenses. He later continued school at the teacher training school. Luo was reported graduated from Penang Teacher Training School(槟榔屿师范学堂) in 1906. Chong Hwa School(中华学堂) was formed in 1904, the first modern Chinese school in Penang, it was later changed to Chung Hwa Confucian School. Now it is known as Chung Hwa Confucian High School (孔圣庙中华中学). On 3-10-1906, a teacher training school was also set up, affiliated to Chung Hwa School(胡子春又倡议于中华学堂附设开办马来亚第一间师范传习所). This was the first teacher training school in Malaya. The training was to train primary school teachers within duration of 6 months. Luo must be one of the pioneer graduates from this teacher training school in 1906, probably graduated in April 1907. The teacher training school sadly was only last for one term.

 Note: 陳育崧的考證也顯示,檳榔嶼的師範傳習所,並非是康有為或是兩廣總督岑春(火*宣)特派員創辦,依據他從光緒卅年代理新加坡總領事張弼士到中華的視察記載,傳習所為中華學校所附設。 可惜的是她只辦一期,學生一二十人、6個月畢業,講師是閩中一位舉人。 http://www.sinchew-i.com/special/relics/ssr30.shtml?ssr3001.html

It was during the time when reformist Kang Youwei(康有为, 1858-1927)was campaigning to modernize China now known as the Hundred Days' Reform(百日維新,戊戌變法) with his famed student, Liang Qichao(梁启超/梁啟超), they were important participants in a opening new modern Chinese schools(新式华校), who was also in Singapore and Penang during the period. He was also the President of Confucius School(孔教会). The schools were popularly named Zhong Hua School(中华学堂)or Confucius School(尊孔学堂). If you are lucky you can find a Chinese calligraphy wrote by Kang Youwei carved on the rock in Kek lok Si temple, he wrote" Forget not my motherland" on 29-6-1903.

The reformist movement was also the political rival of Tongmenhui, they were having political debate in the Chinese newspapers set up in oversea or nanyang. Luo was a Chinese scholar, he also wrote for the local Chinese newspaper to promote modern new ideas. Both political camps had their respective supporters in Nanyang.

May 1907-1908
He also helped in the donation campaign to set up Confucian School(尊孔学堂)in 1906, now Confucian Private Secondary School(尊孔独立中学)in Kuala Lumpur. The school opened on 24-5-1907. It was reported that he was the first principal(旋筹办吉隆尊孔学堂自任校长). But from the history of the school reported in their school official website, the first principal was Lip Siau Yoon (聂少云) from May 1907 to February 1908, Luo Zhong Huo(罗仲霍) may be the pioneer teacher or provincial principal before the school officially opened in 1907. He was freshly graduated from the teacher training school in April 1907, may not be appropriate to be the principal at that time.

1908-1909
Luo was a teacher of Chong Hua School(崇华学堂)in 1908,which was located at Pingzhang Huiguan or Ping Zheng Association(平章会馆), Pitt Street; now known as Chinese Town Hall or DEWAN PERHIMPUNAN CINA PULAU PINANG(槟州华人大会堂). The school was opened on 4-4-1908, and changed its name to Shih Chung School, later moved to Love Lane and now know as SJK(C) Shih Chung Cawangan P. Pinang(时中学校). He was the pioneer teacher in the school.

1909-1910
He later become the principal of Zhong Hua School(中华学堂) in Medan(棉兰市), Dutch East Indies, now Indonesia(荷属火水山中华学堂充校长),and also the editor for the local newspaper(该埠报馆主笔). The school was Dun Ben School(敦本学校), the first Chinese school in Medan, formed by President of Chinese Chamber of Commerce(中华商会), Lu Bowen(卢博文)in 1909. But due to initial financial constraint, it need the support of Zhang Rong Xuan(张耀轩), and the name was changed to Zhong Hua Dun Ben School(中华敦本学校), when the sponsorship withdrawn in 1917, it changed to Zhong Hua School(中华学堂). The first principal was Luo Zhong Huo(罗仲霍). Lu Bowen was the President of Tongmenhui in Medan, and Luo was already a member while in Penang in 1906.

Tongmenhui member

When Dr Sun Yat sen speak in Penang in 1906, Luo joined Tongmenhui and begin active political activities in Malaya, being a good orators, he was able to attract many members. One of them was a pastor,Li Bing Hui(李炳辉,1890-1911) and his god brothers Yu Dong Xiong(余东雄, 1893-1911) and Guo Ji Mei (郭继枚, 1892-1911)from Perak. Li was a former student of ACS, Ipoh, he later attended a Christian college in Malacca to be a christian pastor(it cannot be The Anglo Chinese College as it had moved to Hong Kong in 1843), he joined Singapore Presbyterian Church(新加坡英国长老会教堂). Luo met him in Singapore, and invited him to join Tongmenhui.

Luo also met Li Bing Hui's former teacher, Hu Hanmin(胡汉民), now Dr Sun's follower, and right hand man, in Penang.

1911 Hong Kong & Guangzhou
When Lu Bowen called for Death squad to Huanghuagang Uprising in Guangzhou(广州), 12 volunteers from Medan joined the squad. The squad was led by Luo Zhong Huo. One of them may be Lin Xiu Ming(林修明,1885-1911) from Belitung Island(印尼勿里洞). Others were unknown, as many of them were listed under their ancestral home in China, instead of Indonesia. All died during the uprising.(卢主席又是火水山同盟会支部部长,罗校长也成为同盟会骨干,不久卢君受同盟会总部委托,要求选拔海外青年参加辛亥革命敢死队,卢君不负重任,乃选拔十二人,由罗校长率领到广州,参加广州起义英勇牺牲,成为广州黄花岗七十二烈士之一)

The squad then went to Hong Kong in January 1911. While in Hong Kong, Luo Zhong Huo's wife visited him with his son. But he tried to avoid the meeting, even despite they have not meet for 10 years when Luo was in Nanyang. This reflected his firmness to revolution, and family now was secondary to him, a revolutionist.

During the action in Huanghuakang uprising on 29th March 1911, Luo was injured and caught by the Manchu Army, and was killed when he refused to surrender.

Luo died at the age of 30 years, relatively young.

This was what he wrote to members of Tongmenhui, when he was departing from Penang:

辛亥春返国留别诸同志》云:

陨霜杀草一何悲。赤子扶扶捧首啼!忍见铜驼卧荆棘,神州遍地劫灰飞!英雄老至忽如电,世事云翻雨覆时;漫把先鞭让祖逖,黄龙置酒岂无期?公等健儿好身手,愧余一介弱书生!愿将铁血造世界,亚陆风波倩汝平!

Another poem from Luo, while he was looking at night view from Penang Chinese Town Hall at Pitt Street. I hope I can translate for you;

夜雨有怀 丙午在槟榔屿平章馆楼上晚眺有感(作者:罗仲霍)

独有伤心事,常怀不寐忧。
怨他长夜雨,碎我别离愁。
衾枕同岑寂,香闺睡得否?
百年如许尔,霜雪易盈头!
危楼蹲百尺,俯瞰海潮流。
天际孤帆远,峰前落日收。
风高悲鸟逝,波静羡鱼游。
独有苍茫感,难消身世愁



Further reading:
1.Huanghua Gang Commemoration Park, http://www.72martyrs.com.cn/e_history.htm
2. 中國電影之父-黎民偉, youtube
3. 回来了!烈士后人祖居祭英雄, 金羊网 2005-11-23 15:12:58 http://www.ycwb.com/gb/content/2005-11/23/content_1024797.htm
4. 辛亥革命烈士罗仲霍遗诗首次展示, http://www.huizhou.cn/zt2011/xhgm/jnhd/201106/t20110601_534596.htm
5. 《槟榔屿孔圣庙中华中小学庆祝创校百周年纪念特刊(1904-2004)》,陈剑虹, 页14至18
6. 火水山中华学校与华侨总会沧桑岁月,http://www.guojiribao.com/shtml/gjrb/20100818/30791.shtml
7. 尊孔国民型中学, http://klconfucian.edu.my/v2/index.php?option=com_wrapper&view=wrapper&Itemid=88

Friday, October 7, 2011

Huang Xing(黃興)

Whenever people talk about Chinese Revolution and founding of Republic of China in 1911. They often give credit to Dr Sun Yat-sen. He was glorified as Father Of Modern China(國父). The Xinhai Revolution(辛亥革命)was not only Wu Chang Uprising(武昌起义),it consists of more than 10 uprisings, and ultimately by an event of misfire by a soldier, that sparked the Wu Chang Uprising of soldiers, that spread over the whole China. The result was the fall of Manchu empire in history. Many lost their life, many lost their wealth, just because of their faithful support to revolution. It was 100 years ago. Their names will never mention again, even the famous Huanghuagang Park has been forgotten.

The main revolutionary leaders were Sun Yat-sen (孫中山), Huang Hsing (黃興), Sung Chiao-jen (宋教仁), Ts'ai Yuan-p'ei (蔡元培), Zhao Sheng (趙聲), Zhang Binglin (章炳麟) and Tao Cheng Zhang (陶成章)...and many...most were educated in Japan.

Huang Hsing/Huang Xing (黃興)(b 25-10- 1874 - d 31-10-1916)

Huang Xing was born on 25-10-1874, in the village of Gaotang, Shanhua County(湖南省长沙府善化县高塘乡(今长沙县黄興鎮涼塘), now part of Changsha, Hunan. Like many other Chinese men born before 1949, Huang was known by many different names during his life. His birth name was "Huang Zhen(黄軫), but this was later changed to "Huang Xing(黄兴). He was also known as "Huang Keqiang(黄克強)" and "Qing Wu"(慶午,競武). In the period after 1911 he also used the names "Li Youqing(李有庆)" and "Zhang Shouzheng(张守正)". In Japan, he used the names of Okamoto(冈本义一)、Imamura(今村长藏).

Huang Xing began his studies at the prestigious South Changsha Academy(长沙城南书院) in 1893, and received his Jinshi degree in 1896 when he was only 22 years old. In 1898 Huang was selected to complete further study at Wuchang Lianghu College(两湖书院), from which Huang graduated in 1901. In 1902 Huang was selected by Zhang Zhidong(張之洞)to study abroad in Japan, and was enrolled in the Tokyo Kobun Institute(东京弘文学院), Teacher training(师范科).

Huang also learn Chinese martial art, Wu Style boxing( 巫家拳)under Master Li Yongqiu(李永球)when he was 14 years old.

Huaxinghui(華興會)
The Huaxinghui, translated as the China Revival Society, was founded by Huang Xing on February 15, 1904, in Hunan for the explicit goal of overthrowing the Manchu dynasty. Many of its members later became key figures of the Tongmenghui. The Huaxinghui was dominated by students from Hunan who had returned from Japan. Nevertheless from the very beginning it had strong ties with secret societies, especially with the Ko-Lao Hui whose organizational structure the Huaxinghui paralleled, particularly in the field of the military chain of command. This connects to the primary goal of the Huaxinghui: to "kick out the Tartars" through assassinations of important Manchu officials.

After two failed plots, in November 1904 and early 1905, Huang Xing fled to Japan. There he met Sun Yat-sen in the summer of 1905 for the first time in Tokyo, in order to discuss the possibility of the merger of Sun's Xingzhonghui(興中會),and the Huaxinghui. A compromise was reached, and Huang decided to support Sun fully. At this point the Huaxinghui had ceased to exist. On August 20, 1905, Sun Yat-sen was elected Tsung-li (premier) of the new party named Tongmenghui(中国同盟会). Today historians generally agree that without the Huaxinghui's participation, the founding of the Tongmenghui would not have been possible.

On 13 November 1910, Sun Yat-sen, along with several leading figures of the Tongmenhui—such as Zhao Shen, Huang Hsing, Hu Hanmin, and Deng Zeru—gathered for a conference at penang in the Malaya. The meeting was known as Penang Conference. The Penang Conference was held On Nov 13, 1910, at 404, Datuk Keramat Road, Penang to plan the Second Guangzhou Uprising.

The Yellow Flower Mound revolt on 27-4-1911, where many were killed, only 86 bodies found, but 72 only were identified. They were commemorated as the "72 martyrs.". The uprising was led by Zhao Shen(趙聲)as leader, Hwang Xing(黃興) as second commander. Many remember Hwang Xing, but forgot others. The dead were buried together in one grave on the Yellow Flower Mound or Huanghuagang(黃花崗), a mound near where they fought and died which has lent its name to the uprising, Huanghuagang Uprising(黃花崗起義/黄花岗起义). After the Chinese revolution, a cemetery was built on the mound with the names of those 72 revolutionary nationalists. They were commemorated as the "72 martyrs.". The cemetery now has developed into a memorial park, called Huanghuagang Park(黃花崗公園(黃花崗七十二烈士墓) in Guangzhou. Some historians believe that the uprising was a direct cause of the Wuchang uprising, which eventually led to the Xinhai Revolution and the founding of the Republic of China.

Other than Huanghuagang Uprising, Hwang Xing also directly participated in Zhennanguan Uprising(鎮南關起義), Qinzhou and Lianzhou Uprising(欽州、廉州起義), Hekou Uprising(河口起義). After Wu Chang Uprising(武昌起义), he was the Commander of war affairs for The Xinhai Revolution(辛亥革命). He was the one that takeover the Nanking city on 2-12-1911.

On 1 January 1912, Sun Yat-sen announced the establishment of the Republic of China in Nanking, and he was inaugurated as the Provisional president. In the "Inaugural Announcement of Provisional President", the unity of Chinese races as one was greatly emphasized. Huang Xing was appointed both as the Minister of the Army and as Chief of Staff.

Sun did not have military power and ceded the provisional presidency of the republic to strongman Yuan Shikai, who arranged for the abdication of the Last Emperor on February 12, 1912.

On August 25, 1912, the Kuomintang or KMT(中國國民黨) was established at the Huguang Guild Hall in Beijing, where the Revolutionary Alliance and five smaller pro-revolution parties merged to contest the first national elections. Dr Sun Yat-sen, was chosen as the party chairman with Huang Xing as his deputy. The most influential member of the party was the third ranking Song Jiaoren, who mobilized mass support from gentry and merchants for the KMT on a democratic socialist platform in favor of a constitutional parliamentary democracy. The party was opposed to constitutional monarchists and sought to check the power of Yuan. The Kuomintang won an overwhelming majority of the first National Assembly in December 1912.But Yuan soon began to ignore the parliament in making presidential decisions and had parliamentary leader Song Jiaoren(宋教仁)assassinated in Shanghai in 1913.

Members of the KMT led by Sun Yat-sen staged the Second Revolution in July 1913, a poorly planned and ill-supported armed rising to overthrow Yuan, and failed. In 1913 Yuan Shikai expelled KMT members from all government offices and moved the government to Beijing. Huang stayed in Nanjing, and attempted to reorganize the South Army in order to oppose Yuan. Because a shortage of money Huang's army later mutinied, and Huang had to abandon Nanjing and retreat to the foreign concession areas of Shanghai. Dr Sun Yat-sen again fled to Japan in November 1913.

While exiled in Japan in 1914, Sun established the Chinese Revolutionary Party, but many of his old revolutionary comrades, including Huang Xing, Wang Jingwei, Hu Hanmin and Chen Jiongming, refused to join him. The party was undemocratic as it required members to take an oath of personal loyalty to Sun, which contrary to the spirit of the revolution.

Huang went into exile in the United States in 1914, and Yuan Shikai proclaimed himself emperor in 1915. While abroad, Huang raised funds in order to raise a Yunnan National Protection Army to suppress Yuan.

After the death of Yuan, in June 1916, Huang returned to China.


                                      [The tomb of HuangXing at Yuelu Mountain, Changsa, Hunan]

On 31st October 1916, Huang died in Shanghai at the age of 42. On April 15, 1917, Huang was given a state funeral, and was buried in Changsha on Yuelu Mountain(岳麓山). As right hand man of Dr Sun, he should at least buried at Nanking, like Lim Nee Soon(林義順)from Singapore who buried in Nanking together with Dr Sun(The Straits Times, 12 April 1936, Page 1). He was not even buried in Huanghua Park together with the fellow revolutionaries in Guangzhou. He buried at Changsha, capital of his home province, Hunan. Even at his burial ground, it revealed the characteristic of Hwang Xing, he is a real humble revolutionist, to change his country for the good future. He was not pursuing his personal ambition, nor go after political power, and personal wealth. He just give his whole life for the sake of his beloved country. Just simple as that, a real patriotic, a real national hero of China.

What Zhang Tai-yan(章太炎) wrote in the funeral banner(挽联), " There will not have Republic of China without Hwang Xing, history of China will surely record the heroic act of Hwang Xing" (无公乃无民国,有史必有斯人). This provide a fair conclusion on the life of Hwang Xing.

Hwang Xing and Dr Sun Yat-sen

Both Dr Sun Yat-sen and Hwang Xing are commonly called "Sun-Hwang"(“孫黃”)by Chinese people. The term revealed that Hwang is acknowledged equally as heroes and leaders of Chinese Revolution. Some people called Hwang Xing, the 2nd father of modern China.

Dr Sun Yat-sen was the most celebrated personality in history, he was accepted as the leader. However there is another leader, Huang Xing(黃興). He was one of the hero with contribution equal to Dr Sun, and many times he was offered to take over as leader, but he humbly rejected the offer, and give the confirmation on his support for the leadership of Dr Sun Yat-sen. He preferred to play as No 2. He once say to party supporters in San Francisco who asked him to form a new party, "The only leader is Dr Sun Yat-sen, I do not know others"(“领袖惟有孙中山,其他不知也!”). How single minded and faithful, Hwang Xing is to Dr Sun.

Dr Sun was full of ideas, from his western education and oversea exposure, his power of influence is at Guangdong and Guangxi areas. He is more a thinker. Hwang Xing was educated in Kobun Institute, Japan, he started Hua Xing Hui (華興會) in Hunan(湖南) and active in the area along Yangtze River(長江) area. He is man of action. They supplement each other.

At time they have conflicts, but was able to resolve for the sake of their ultimate agenda, to overthrow Manchu. The most critical split was on the incident when Song Jiaoren(宋教仁) was murdered. Hwang Xing insisted on taking legal action, but Dr Sun was in favour of military action against Yuan. Song Jiaoren was the closest friend of Hwang Xing since formation of Huaxinghui(華興會). The other incident was on the selection of national flag for the new China.

Huang Xing in Penang
Huang Xing had been to Penang few times, especially at Penang Conference. He first come to Penang on 12-7-1906, attended Penang Conference on 13-11-1910. It was also in Penang that he first met his companion wife, Miss Xu Zonghan(徐宗汉), a female pioneer member of Tung Menhui in Penang. In 1907, Xu Zonghan(徐宗汉) was offered a teaching post in Penang, the proposed Chung Hwa Girl School(中华女学). But she joined Tung Menhui and left Penang in 1908 to prepare for Huanghua Kang Uprising in Guangzhao.

His family received no financial gains nor honour, as family of hero of Chinese revolution. They are a commoner like other Chinese citizen. That is the spirit of Huang Xing....

But people remember Dr Sun Yat-sen, yet forget Huang Xing.....

The personality of real hero....Huang Xing, the leader behind Dr Sun....

That is Huang Xing, a man worthy of our salute; a man that worthy to call the 2nd Father of Modern China.....a man with real love for his country, China.



Legacies

                                     [Huang Xing's statute at Huang Xing Road,Changsha, Hunan]

1. In Changsha, Nanzheng Street was renamed to Huang Xing Road in 1934. There are also roads named in honor of Huang Xing in Shanghai and Wuhan.
2. The town where Huang Xing was born was renamed "Huang Xing Town" in his honor.
3. Similar to the Zhongshan Parks, the Huang Xing Park in Shanghai is named after Huang Xing.

Suggested readings:
1. Grandchildren of the revolution ,http://www.globaltimes.cn/NEWS/tabid/99/ID/682055/Grandchildren-of-the-revolution.aspx

Tuesday, October 4, 2011

Dr TH Lee(李登輝), President of Fudan University

Li Denghui(李登輝, 1872-1947) has the same Chinese name identical with Lee Tenghui(李登輝, born 1923)of Taiwan. He was in Penang from 1899 -1901 as teacher of early Methodist Boy's School, Penang, formerly known as Anglo Chinese School Penang (ACS Penang).

 

This Li Denghui(李登輝, 1872-1947) is not the former President of Taiwan, Lee Teng-hui(李登輝, born 1923), a Chinese Hakka who has a Japanese name Iwasato Masao (岩里政男)and considered as Father of Taiwan Independence. Educated mainly in Japanese except post graduate studies in USA. Born in Taiwan. He is a politician, has affinity to Japan. He is agriculturist and politician. He is still alive, and despite old age, still active in the Taiwan independence movement to divide China.

Lee Teng-hui(李登輝, born 1923)President of Taiwan
Lee was born to a Hakka family in the rural farming community of Sanzhi(Sanshi-kyō), Taipei County (Taihoku, now New Taipei City), Taiwan (under Japanese rule at that time). As a child, he often dreamed of traveling abroad, and became an avid stamp collector. Growing up during the Japanese rule of Taiwan, he developed a strong affinity for Japan. His father was a middle-level Japanese police aide and his brother served and died in the Imperial Japanese Navy. Lee—one of only four Taiwanese students in his high school class—graduated with honors and was given a scholarship to Japan's Kyoto Imperial University, then known as Kyoto Technical School. A lifelong collector of books, Lee was heavily influenced by Japanese thinkers like Nitobe Inazo and Nishida Kitaro in Kyoto. In 1944 he too volunteered for service in the Imperial Japanese Army and became a second lieutenant officer of an anti-aircraft gun in Taiwan. He was ordered back to Japan in 1945 and participated in the clean-up after the great Tokyo firebombing of March, 1945. Lee stayed in Japan after the surrender and graduated from Kyoto University in 1946. He later graduated from National Taiwan University in agricutural science, and further studied at post graduate level at Iowa State University(Master in agricultural economic) and Cornell University(PHD). he was first communist, and then joined KMT. When Chiang Ching-kuo died in January 1988 and Lee succeeded him as President of Taiwan.(wikipeidia)

He is a different person, much more senior, he was Lee Teng Hwee outside China and Dr TH Lee to the west. He was the beloved former President of Fudan University.

This Li Denghui, was a Nanyang Fujian Chinese, born in Indonesia. He studied in ACS, Singapore. He was a former teacher from ACS Penang, now Methodist Boy's School, Penang, and the first President of Fudan University(复旦大学), Shanghai, China. His education background was Christian Anglo-Saxon ACS, and US educated from Yale. He was educationalist and social reformist, not politician. He supported the resistance during the 2nd Sino-Japanese War. He was in the movement to unite China during 1905-1947 until he died.

The only common is they are both Christian. Dr TH Lee is a Methodist, President Lee of Taiwan is Presbyterian.



Li Denghui/Lee Teng Hwee(1873-1947)President of Fudan

Li Denghui (李登輝, 1872-1947, zi Tingfei, 騰飛), was the president of Fudan University during 1917-1937.

Li's ancestors came from Tong'an District, Fujian Province(福建同安人), but he was born in Batavia or Djakarta on 18-4-1872, Dutch East Indies. He is the eldest son of Lie Khay Gwan, a batik merchant.

Batavia(巴達維亞,now Djakarta )1872-1886
Born in 1872, eldest son of Lie Khay Gwan , to the family of a poor farmer with a small trading business in a small West Java town near Batavia (Djakarta), he was the eldest in a family with five brothers and two sisters. He studied at an elementary school, going by horsecart, but staying at home on rainy days to help his mother look after his siblings. His mother's death in 1885 when he was just 13 affected the business but Denghui showed little interest in the business or domestic chores. After his father remarried, he agreed to let the restless lad go to Singapore to further his studies in 1886 when he was 14 years old.

Singapore 1886-1889, 1891
He arrived fairly soon after ACS was founded, and was entrusted to his father's business associate, one Mr Tan, who looked after him and arranged for him to be enrolled in the school. With an emphasis on English, science and mathematics, together with regular Bible study, a number of students became Christians, and Denghui's Christian faith and his belief in the value of loyalty, purity, generosity and love came from his three years at Anglo Chinese School(ACS), Singapore.

In his second and third year, he had all his meals with the Rev William Oldham, while he would wander off after church on Sundays to ponder over the window of knowledge which he widened when he went overseas to study Greek, Latin, French, the arts and literature of the Renaissance, and English Literature - a background from which he was later to teach at Fudan University.

At ACS, he was a good scholar, and must have impressed Oldham who accompanied him to Batavia some time in 1889 (before going on medical leave in America). With Oldham's encouragement and financial assistance from the Methodist Mission, he sailed for America in 1891 where he spent some time at Ohio Wesleyan University preparatory to admission to Yale from where he graduated with a BA degree in 1899.

Note: ACS was founded on March 1, 1886 by Bishop William Fitzjames Oldham, as an extension of the Methodist Church. Its first location was a shophouse at 70 Amoy Street with a total of 13 pupils. We do not know is Lee among the first batch students. The name of the school came from the fact that it conducted lessons in English in the nights and Chinese in the afternoons. By the following year, enrollment had increased to 104, and the school moved to Coleman Street on 15-11-1886. There were 28 students, Lee teng Hui was the student among the 28 at Coleman Street. Lee Teng Hwee was the price winner for standard 1 in 1887. (source: ACS Magazine, 1904)

1891-1899 America
At ACS, he was a good scholar, and must have impressed Oldham who accompanied him to Batavia some time in 1889 (before going on medical leave in America). With Oldham's encouragement and financial assistance from the Methodist Mission, he sailed for America in 1891 where he spent some time at Ohio Wesleyan University preparatory to admission to Yale from where he graduated with a BA degree in 1899. At Yale, he followed a humanities course and studied Greek, Latin, French, the arts of the Renaissance and English Literature. Soon after, he responded to a call by Bishop Thoburn for teachers to serve in Methodist schools in this country.

1899 -1901 , 1904 Penang
His Christian background now encouraged him to answer Bishop Thoburn's call for volunteer missionaries to teach in India and Malaysia, as did James Hoover - who later became a key Methodist missionary in Sarawak. Both men actually sailed together to Penang where they joined the staff of ACS Penang(now MBS, Methodist Boy's School), and were members of the school committee along with Dr. B. F. West, G. F. Pykett and J. W. W. Hogan in 1900.

ACS Penang was found by Rev BH Balderston on 28-5-1891. , G. F. Pykett was appointed principal on 10-4-1893. On 1-1-1897, the school moved to Maxwell Road from the Carnarvon Street. TH Lee(Lee Teng Hwee) arrived from America in Sept 1899. He took the class of Standard VI. No mention of when Lee left the school(ACS Magazine, 1904)
Li Denghui as an intensely patriotic Nanyang Chinese, bitterly disappointed at the failure of the efforts by early Chinese patriots like Kang Youwei and Liang Qichao to modernise China and he thus resolved to devote his life to serve its people. He founded a debating society in 1899, similar to that established earlier in Singapore by Dr Lim Boon Keng whom he met in Penang. He linked the causes of the problems besetting China to a blindly conservative mentality, an incompetent, corrupt and unjust ruling class, the exclusion of women from education, and the observance of ancestral worship. This led him towards the need for reform in China.

Deciding that his future lay in social action, Li Denghui left Penang, and spent three years in Batavia unsuccessfully pursuing his ideal of providing a new kind of education. In 1904, he revisited Penang, meeting a number of other Nanyang Chinese with similar ideals - Dr Wu Lian Teh, Dr Gu Li Ting and Hong Mu Huo - firming up some ideas which were later applied in China, where he spent the rest of his life.

1901-1903 Batavia

Li Denghui left Penang, and spent three years in Batavia unsuccessfully pursuing his ideal of providing a new kind of education.

Li was active in Strait Chinese Reform Movement in Batavia, he and Lim Boon Keng,OBE(林文慶) made regular trips from Singapore to Batavia to publicize the movement. In 1895, Lim was member of the British Legislative Council in Singapore. he headed a Commission Of Inquiry into the sources of poverty in Singapore(1896). Lim was also a justice of the peace and a member of the Chinese Advisory Board. Lim founded the Philomatic society and published the first Straits Chinese Magazine in 1897. He campaigned against the wearing of the pigtails among Chinese men, and opium smoking, forming Anti-Opium Society in Singapore.

Lim Boon Keng, who started promoting modern Chinese education during the Confucian revival movement in the Straits Settlements at the end of the 19th century, played an important role in the initial stages of the educational movement in Java. A report shows that Lim Boon Keng appointed THHK’s first principal. He also appointed a teacher for THHK. In 1902, on the occasion of celebrating the anniversary of the THHK school, The Straits Chinese Magazine, edited by Lim Boon Keng and Song Ong Siang, acknowledged THHK’s contribution in awakening the Indies Chinese and praised the spirit of reform in the Dutch East Indies(source: The Educational Movement in Early 20th Century Batavia and Its Connections with Singapore and China, by Oiyan Liu, ).

Tiong Hoa Hwee Kwan or THHK(中华会馆, Zhong Hua Hui Guan), or in Indonesian language, Rumah Perkumpulan Tionghoa, was an organization establsihed on 17-3-1900 by the local Batavia Chinese. It was popularly known as THHK Batavia (Bahoa)by the locals. A Chinese school, Tiong Hoa Hak Tong(巴城中華學堂, later changed its name to Sekolah Tiong Hoa HWE Koan, Sekolah PA HOA(八華學校), 1901-1966)established on 17-3- 1901 by Tiong Hoa Hwee Koan-Batavia or THHK Batavia or Bahoa (椰城中华会馆, , established on 17-3- 1900)with the goal to reform the oversea Chinese in Dutch East Indies(now Indonesia). The school was located at 31, Jalan Patekoan(八帝贯街), now Jalan Perniagaan Raya, that was why it was called Sekolah PA HOA(八華學校). It was the first Chinese school in Dutch East Indies(now Indonesia). (source: Prominent Indonesian Chinese: biographical sketches, by Leo Suryadinata, Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 1995, pg 75). Today Sekolah Terpadu Pahoa (八华学校) is located at Summarecon Serpong, Tangerang.

Soon after THHK’s foundation, the association extended its reach to Batavia with the institutionalisation of the English school called Yale Institute(耶鲁学院). Yale Institute was supervised by the THHK, but founded by Lee Teng-Hwee, a Batavia-born Peranakan Chinese who had started an English school in Penang with Lim Boon Keng after his studies at the Anglo-Chinese School in Singapore (source: The Educational Movement in Early 20th Century Batavia and Its Connections with Singapore and China, by Oiyan Liu). The founding of English school supervised by THHH revealed the influence of the Singapore publicists on the movement. The Confucian Revival Movement in Singapore was part of the larger Straits Chinese Reform Movement.

Lee established an English elementary school and named after his alma mater, Yale Institue (Yale Institution, Afdeeling) C of Perkumpulan THHK ) on 1-9- 1901 at Batavia(now Jakarta), he left in 1903. He also taught in Tiong Hoa Hak Tong(巴城中華學堂).

At that time THHH was still under the influence sphere of reformist movement Baohuanghui (保皇會) or Protect the Emperor Society of Kang You-wei(康有为/康有為, 1858-1927)along with his famed student, Liang Qichao, were important participants in a campaign to modernize China now known as the Hundred Days' Reform. Establishment of Chong Hwa School(中华学堂) or Confucius School(尊孔学堂),and Confucius society(孔教会) were part of their activities. Lee left in 1903 after unsuccessfully pursuing his ideal of providing a new kind of education under the sphere of reformists influence. (source:http://www.pahoa.or.id/history.php)

On January 1905, Yale Institute(巴城耶鲁学院)and Tiong Hoa Hak Tong(中华学堂)merged to form Sekolah Pa Hoa(八華學校).

Lee was also involved in establishing the Lie Loen Hwee in Batavia, a Chinese debating club.

1903 San Francisco Bar his entry to USA

1903 - On the 19th July., Teng Hwee Lee, a graduate of Yale in 1899, arrived at San Francisco and was not permitted to land. He had been teaching in the Straits Settlement and had returned to this country to take a graduate course at one of our universities. Unfortunately he did not have with him the certificate which entitled him to admission,( The Independent, Volume 55, 1904- 1947 Shanghai, Published for the proprietors by S.W. Benedict, 1903) A young Chinamen, Teng Hwee Lee, is held at San Francisco, awaiting permission to enter the linked States. He is a graduate of Yale, class of '99, and, after establishing an English school at Batavia, has returned to this country to take a post graduate course in political economy at Columbia University. Mr Lee has hired a lawyer but does..( American Co-operator, Volume 2, Issue 41 - Volume 3, Issue 76, 1903)

BAR OUT CHINESE SCHOLAR.; Teng Hwee Lee, Yale, '99, Likely to be Deported - He Wished to Enter Columbia.( The New York Times,July 20, 1903,pg1)

It was sad for the young Chinese for failure to continue his study at Columbia University, the problem at the immigration can be easily resolved on the spot, but the bureaucratic with racial biases, deprived the young Lee the opportunity to further his post graduate degree. It may be disappointment at that time, but it was a blessing for Fudan later.

Penang 1904

In 1904, he revisited Penang, meeting a number of other Nanyang Chinese with similar ideals - Dr Wu Lian Teh/Dr Gnoh Lean Tuck(伍连德, 1879-1960, who left to China in 1907), Dr Gu Li Ting and Hong Mu Huo - firming up some ideas which were later applied in China, where he spent the rest of his life.  

The movement for the federation of world Chinese students was suggested by Mr Tse Tsan Tai(謝纘泰/謝贊泰, 1872-1938, first Chinese to fly an airship, China in 1899), in his letter to his friend, Dr Gnoh Lean Tuck(伍连德), MA,MD(Cantab)of Penang in Oct 1904, and Dr Gnoh and his friends in Penang was the one to set the ball rolling in the right direction.( Eastern Daily Mail and Straits Morning Advertiser, 11 September 1905, Page 3)

On 7th June 1904, Lee Teng Hwee arrived in the colony(Hong Kong) on board SS Darmstadt, and after conferring with Mr Tse Tsan Tai, he proceeded direct to Shanghai where it had been decided that the HQ will be established . The President of Shanghai was Mr Lee Teng Hwee, BA(Yale), Vice Presidents were HK Woo, BA(Chinese degree), TY Kung, BA(Chinese degree),Dr Gnoh Lean Tuck, MA,MD(Cantab) was the President in Penang, Dr Koh Lip Ting, MBCHB(Edin) was the Treasurer( Eastern Daily Mail and Straits Morning Advertiser, 11 September 1905, Page 3). Li Deng-hui was the President until 1915.

1904 Shanghai

He arrived in Shanghai in October 1904, organized the World Chinese Student Federation(WCSF) or Huanqiu Zhongguo Xuesheng Zonghui(寰球中國學生會) on 1st July 1905 and was its first President, aiming to promote social justice in China, unite Chinese students studying overseas, and help members secure employment, medical care and legal advice. Yan Huiqing(顏惠慶, also known as WW Yen,1877-1950)was the first chairman of the board of directors for the World Chinese Students Federation. Similar associations were set up in Penang, Qingdao, Fuzhou, Hawaii and Singapore. Most of the original members of the federation were Christians and patriots. Eastern Daily Mail and Straits Morning Advertiser, 5 September 1905, Page 2 reported his good friend in Singapore , Dr Lim Boon Keng will be asked to start in Federation

1905, he was first Dean of studies, Fudan Public School found by Ma Xiangbo(马相伯). The pioneer staff of Fudan Public School.

He was editor of the Republican Advocate, Shanghai, and editor of the English department of the Chung Hwa Book Company, 1912-13

From 1913 to 1916, he was the principal of Fudan Public School(复旦公学). He was appointed as first President of Fudan Private Univesity (私立复旦大学)in August 1917 when Fudan Public School upgraded to university status. He served as President of Fudan Univesity from 1917 -1936. Fudan was his life, his life had been given all to Fudan.

He passed away in November 1947 in Shanghai.

From 1905 until his death in 1947, he was with Fudan in various role and capacity. We can boldly say, Fudan without Li Deng Hui is not Fudan. Fudan is Li Deng Hui, and Li Deng Hui is Fudan, they are one. All his life was for Fudan. The history of Fudan was his life story.

Names of past President, Fudan University

1913-1936 Li Denghui (李登辉)
1918 Tang Luyuan (唐路园), acting when Li Denghui went to Nanyang for fund raising.
1924-1925 Guo Renyuan (郭任远), acting Li Denghui went for holiday in Nanyang.
1936-1940 Qian Xinzhi (钱新之), replaced Li Denghui.
1940-1943 Wu Nanxuan (吴南轩), President when university was moved to Chongqing during resistance war , Li Deng hui was in charge of the university remained at Shanghai.
1943-1949 Zhang Yi (章益)
1949-1977 Chen Wangdao (陈望道)

History of Fudan Public School(复旦公学)
(i)Aurora College or Zhendan Public School (震旦公學, 震旦学院)1903

Fudan Public School(复旦公学) and Aurora College(震旦学院, later Aurora University or Université l'Aurore, 1903-1952) was actually from the same school. Aurora or L’Aurore is the Hindu name for China. The founder was Father Joseph Ma Xiangbo S.J. (马相伯, 1840-1939) and French Jesuits. The University was founded on 27th February, 1903, initially located at unused excess house(徐家汇天文台旧址) of The St. Ignatius Cathedral of Shanghai or Xujiahui Catholic Church(聖依納爵主教座堂/徐家汇天主堂), No 158, Puxi Road, Shanghai(上海市徐汇区浦西路158号). Aurora College was later moved to Luban Lu, Luwan district(卢家湾吕班路, 今卢湾区鲁班路)in 1908. Later Aurora university was kept by French Jesuits until the coming of Communist Revolution. It was situated from 1908 in the French concession of Shanghai.

Aurora College(震旦学院), Shanghai was the first Chinese community built university and also first Christian university for modern education in history of China.
Ma Xiangbo left in 1904, and later established a new school, Fudan Public School(復旦公學)in 1905.

(ii)Fudan Public School(復旦公學) 1905

Fudan Public School was found on 4-9-1905. 西元 1905 年是復旦大學開校的第一屈,由教育家--馬相伯和他的弟子:于右任,葉仲裕,邵力子,王侃叔,沈步洲,張軼歐,葉藻庭所創。校名是由于右任從「卿雲歌」的「明光華,旦復旦兮」,中擷取「復旦」兩字,經馬相伯同意,表示不忘「震旦」之舊,更具恢復中華之意。
The two Chinese characters Fu (復) and Dan (旦), literally meaning "(heavenly light shines) day after day", were chosen by the distinguished educator in modern Chinese history, Father Ma Xiangbo S.J. (马相伯), from the Confucian Classics book Shang Shu Da Zhuan - Yu Xia Zhuan(尚书大传-虞夏传): "Itinerant as the twilight, sun glows and moon luminesces" (日月光華,旦復旦兮). Fudan(復旦) also means reinstate of Dan(旦or 震旦).
Fudan Public School opened at Wusong(吴淞), a port town located fourteen miles downriver from Shanghai. Note: The Woosung area was abolished in 1964 and incorporated with Baoshan County(宝山县)into the Baoshan District(宝山区)of Shanghai in 1988). The school was initially located temporary at borrowed premise, a Manchu navy camp office(吴淞镇水师提督行辕) at the port.

1911-1913, he was Editor in Chief of Republican Advocate. At almost the same time, he was appointed supervisor(Dean of studies) of Fudan Public School(复旦公学) by its founder, Ma Xiangbo(马相伯), a Christian, whose intention was to select high school students by examination and train them in higher level subjects in the English language thereby enabling them to gain admission to European universities for specialized subjects.

1913-1914, he worked for a large publisher Zhonghua Shuju , and become the head of its English department. In 1913 he was also appointed as Principal of Fudan Public School

1911 - During the Xinhai Revolution the college campus at Wusong(吴淞) was taken up as the headquarters of the Revolutionist or Guangfu Army(光复军司令部) and closed down for almost one year. The campus now is located School of Management, Fudan University(复旦大学管理学院), found in 1985( http://www.fdsm.fudan.edu.cn/aboutus). The school moved to Wuxi for nearly a month.

The principal,Father Ma Xiangbo(校长马相伯)and Dean of Studies(教务长)Hu Dunfu(胡敦复, 1886—1978)with the support of gentry at Wuxi, borrowed the Lee Hang Zhang ancestral Temple(李汉章大公祠)as school and Zhao Zhong Temple(昭忠祠) as school hostel. At the same time the school also prepared for reopening of the original school.

In 1913, when Ma Xiangbo(马相伯) had to leave China, Li assumed the position of Principal, teaching several subjects such as English, Logic and Philosophy.
In 1917, when Fudan Public School became a private Fudan University(私立復旦大學) with a modern curriculum in the humanities, natural sciences and business as well as modern European languages, he became its first President. Unique in being a private institution, it was staffed mainly with teachers who had been trained in the West.
(Note: Fudan was changed to public university in 1941 as National Fudan University (國立復旦大學) at Beibei, Chongqing (重庆北碚)where it moved in 1937 during the Chinese Resistance War(抗日战争).

From 1905-1911, Fudan produced 4 batches of high school graduates , with 57 students (1905~1911年,复旦公学培养出四届高等正科 ,毕业生共57人)

1912 - After Xinhai Revolution and formation of ROC

1912 – On 5th May 1912, the Education Ministry of Provisional Government of Nanjing, informed all provinces in China that the revolutionary war was over, instructed that all high schools, colleges and universities can now open. Fudan was trouble with the problem of premise, finance. One of the former student, Yu Youren(于右任) who has become Deputy Minister of Transport & Communication of provisional government, reported to the Provisional President Dr Sun Yat- sen, who immediately allocated relief fund for 10,000 yuan. The school was provided with Li Hong–zhang ancestral hall (李鸿章祠堂) for the school premise, thus solved the problem. Temporary the school borrowed premise in Elgin Road(爱而近路), now Anqing Road(安庆路) , moving to Li Hong-zhang ancestral hall only in September.

Later, Father Ma Xiangbo(校长马相伯) was appointed important post in Beijing, and unable to manage the school affairs. The school was without principal, it was managed by Provost Hu Dunfu(胡敦复), and Dean of General affairs Ye Zao-ting (庶务长叶藻庭). Unfortunately in December, student protests happened. The school formed the school governor committee to govern the school affairs; the committee members included Dr Sun Yat-sen, Wang Chong-hui(王宠惠)、Chen Yingshi(陈英士)、Cheng Dequan(程德全)、Tang Shaoyi(唐绍仪)、Yu Youren(于右任) and others. Wong Chong-hui(王宠惠) was selected as Chairman of the Board of Governors(董事长). The first board meeting also decided that the School constitution need to be review,fund raising project approved,and Li Deng-hui appointed as new principal(李登辉任校长).

(Yet he had the time to wrote an article in The Strait Time, Singapore(THE NATIONAL RECLAMATION ASSOCIATION. Lee Teng-Hwee, B.A. By What promise, perhaps, to be one of the most important and useful institutions m connection with the new Republican' Government, is the National Reclamation Association which held its first meeting on the 18th March at Nanking. That it will become a... Weekly Sun, 28 September 1912, Page 4)

1913 - On 1/3/1913, Fudan reopened. The first parliamentary election was in February 1913 , which then convened the National Assembly of the Republic of China for the first time on April 8. The Kuomintang won majority of the seats, and Song Jiaoren(宋教仁) was designated to form the cabinet. He was assassinated by President Yuan Shikai shortly after .

On 3rd May, the community in Shanghai paid their last respect to Song Jiaoren(宋教仁, 1882-1913), the funeral arrangement was by students of Fudan, The President of Fudan Mr Li Denghui, and teachers Shao Lizi/Shao Li-tzu(邵力子,1882-1967)、Chiang Mei Sheng(蒋梅笙, 1871-1942, who is father in law of Xu Beihong) give a farewell speech at the funeral ceremony.

On 15th July, Hwang Xing declared Jiangsu independence in the 2nd Revolution(二月革命)started by Dr Sun Yat-sun to declare war on Yuan Shi-kai, Jiangsu provincial military governor Cheng Dequan (江苏都督程德)was appointed as commander of South Army, but he disobeyed and escaped to Shanghai. (Cheng was in the board of Fudan). The 2nd revolution failed, many members of board of governors of Fudan, who were involved escaped oversea, this badly affected the finance of the school. Principal Li Deng Hui begin to cut expenses , with the coorperation of the students, Fudan was able to overcome the financial problem.

1915 – The principal Li Denghui planned to acquire land in Jiangwan(江湾), so to have a permanent campus for Fudan. The dream of Li Deng Hui was to have a university on par with his alma mater, Yale University, the Yale of the east. The university campus was part of the plan.

During 1912-1916, a total of 150 completed their high school, and 15 students graduated from School of Pre -university. Two of the famous one were 张志让、孙越崎.



1917 – 1937 Fudan University as Private University

In 1917, Fudan Public School began to offer undergraduate programs and officially renamed itself "Fudan Private University"(私立复旦大学). Li Deng-hui was the first president of Fudan University from 1917 to 1937. After being expanded to a full-fledged university, the University had an increasing enrollment. It had three schools: Arts, Sciences and Business, a prep school, and a section of secondary education.

1918- Li Denghui went to Nanyang(South east Asia) to raise fund for purchasing building land to develop university campus at Jiangwan(江灣).

1919 - When May Fourth Movement started, Fudan's teacher Shao Lizi(邵力子), who was also the chief editor of Republic Daily(民国时报), informed the President Li Deng Hui and other Fudan students, they formed United Shanghai Students Association(上海市学生联合会), they support class boycott ,industrial strike, and they were in the frontline of the movement in Shanghai. Dr Sun Yat-sen give moral support to the students.

As President of Fudan University, he lent active support to the May 4 Movement that had started in Beijing and spread to Shanghai in May 1919, providing refuge for students who had been dismissed from Beijing University for their involvement.

Despite the efforts of Li to defend the actions of the students as patriotic, the authorities took a hard line, arresting and punishing them. This resulted in a general strike by students in Shanghai, supported by public works personnel. In the ensuing confrontation, the Republic of China Student Union convened a meeting to elect representatives, attended by Li. When things had quietened down, Li chaired a public talk attended by more than 100 Chinese students who had studied in Europe and America, and encouraged them to work hard and diligently in order to reform the new China.

(extract from ACS Old Boy headed Fudan University in Shanghai, http://www.methodistmessage.com/dec2005/elaupg.html, with thanks)

1920- The construction of campus at Jiangwan(江灣)started in 1920 winter, and it was completed in 1922.

(i) Teaching Building- The Hall of 简公堂(now Fudan Museum, 复旦博物馆), 这幢楼在一九二二年春天落成时,取名简公堂,因为李登辉校长当年在董事长唐少川(绍仪)先生的协助下,向南洋烟草公司简照南、简玉阶兄弟募得银洋五万元,用以建造了这
1921年,由南洋兄弟烟草公司总司理简照南及其弟简玉阶捐资建造。同年落成,命名简公堂,作教学楼,为当时校中最为宏丽的建筑。抗战中被日军炮火夷为平地。战后在原址重建,已非原貌,仍以简氏名名之。复旦园内最古老的建筑,首推简公堂(今200号).
(ii) Office block, 奕柱堂, (1929 added two wings, and converted into Library, now Faculty of Economic)年增添两翼,改作图书馆,今经济学院)
(iii) No 1 Student hostel(destroyed during the WW2), now location of The Hall of XiangHui (相辉堂), original name was actually Hall of Tenghui (登辉堂)when built in 1947, but it was changed to Xianghui in 1985 during the Fudan 80th anniversary. 原名登辉堂,建于一九四七年初夏。校庆八十周年(1985年),学校领导为了永远纪念马相伯和李登辉两位先生又改称相辉堂,并请周谷城先生题字。相辉堂现在作为舞台使用,各种表演、演讲、报告等都有可能在相辉堂进行.
(iv) teacher hostel( destroyed)



In 1928-1930, Li Deng-hui served as an executive member of the Chinese National Anti-Opium Committee

In 1929, Fudan University altered its educational system and opened four new departments: journalism, civil administration, law, and education. It consisted of seventeen departments, which comprised the four schools: Arts, Sciences, Law, and Business.

1931- The Mukden Incident, also known as the Manchurian Incident (九•一八事变), was a staged event that was engineered by Japanese military personnel as a pretext for invading the northern part of China known as Manchuria in 1931. On the night of 18 September Lieutenant Kawamoto Suemori (河本末守中尉)and seven or eight subordinates of his in the Railway Garrison managed to detonate explosives placed on the railway-line at Liutiaokou near Mukden (now Shenyang). The railway line was owned by Japan's South Manchuria Railway. Although the explosion was so weak that it failed to destroy the lines and a train passed minutes later, the Imperial Japanese Army, accusing Chinese dissidents of the act, responded with a full invasion that led to the occupation of Manchuria, in which Japan established its puppet state of Manchukuo six months later. The incident led to diplomatic isolation of Japan and its withdrawal from the League of Nations.

The principal Lee Deng-hui organized a Student Rally (声讨大会)at Fudan to denounce and condemn the attack , and established a Military Training Committee to train students on basic military skills. The students appealed to KMT government 3 times to sent resistance force against Japanese army. On 20-11-1931, about 100 students of Fudan formed a Army Volunteers (义勇军), to join the KMT resistance force, 19th Route Army (十九路军). 19th Routh Army was KMT army led by General Cai Tingkai (蔡廷锴) in Shanghai. They were given the task of logistics support, propaganda and education during the war. Fudan moved to Xujiahui High School(徐家汇附中) now Fudan High School to continue teaching.

1932- The January 28 Incident (January 28 – March 3, 1932) was a short war between the armies of the Republic of China and the Empire of Japan, before official hostilities of the Second Sino-Japanese War commenced in 1937.

1935 - The December 9th Movement ( 一二九运动) refers to a mass protest led by students in Beiping (present-day Beijing) on December 9, 1935 that demands the Kuomintang government to actively resist potential Japanese aggression. The protest movement was supported by students all over the country. Response was very positive as similar petitions and assemblies were organized in many large cities. The students of Fudan responded by sending petition to the Shanghai City government, and also met at the railway station to prepare for petition to Nanjing, the capital. General Chiang Kai-sheh phoned the President Li Deng Hui, ordered him to stop the students from going to Nanjing. The students rejected the appeal by their beloved President. The KMT authority blocked the students to enter the train and railway track was destroyed. The students rebuilt the track but was stopped at Wuxi (无锡). In the end , the Beijing–Shanghai Railway or Jinghu railway (京沪铁路) route was interrupted for 4 days, this raised the attention of the international community.

1936 – In the morning of 25-3-1936, Shanghai military police surrounded the campus of Fudan Univeristy, and captured 7 student committee members from the Student Save the Nation Associaiton(学生救国会) who were staying off campus . The same afternoon, military police entered the campus , attacking students and teachers, this action arouse the anger of the students for defense, the polices were chased out from campus. The police then fired outside the campus, killed one police by mistake, but accused the students killed the police. The police entered the campus again, but no students were captured. The President Li Deng Hui officially issued a strong protest against the violence of KMT party. They immediately conducted an extraordinary board meeting, demanded an official explanation from the mayor of Shanghai , Wu Tiecheng(吴铁城, 1888-1953) , who was also garrison commander for Songhu(淞沪警备司令). Wu admitted that it was their mistake and the news wrongly reported student shot the policeman, and guaranteed that no similar incident will happen again. The local community also voiced their opposition to the students arrest. KMT finally released all the students.

Later of the year, President Li Deng-hui was asked to resign by the KMT party. Dr Wu Nan-xuan or Nan-hsuan M. Woo (吴南轩, 1983-1980) was appointed to replace him as President of the Fudan University. He was the alumni of the Fudan’s pre-university school, graduated in 1919, and former President of Tsing Hua University(1931.4 - 1931.6). The students suffered under political pressure from KMT , and all student political activities were stopped.

Mr Li Denghui after resigned from Fudan, visited Sichuan in Oct 1936, he was warmly welcome by the alumni and students of Fudan. This console the wounded soul of the old President of Fudan.

The Marco Polo Bridge Incident (盧溝橋事變/七七事變)on 7-7-1937 started the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945). It led directly into full scale war with the Battle of Beiping-Tianjin at the end of July and the Battle of Shanghai in August.



1937 - The Battle of Shanghai, known in Chinese as Battle of Songhu(淞滬會戰) from August 13, 1937 to November 26, 1937, was the first of the twenty-two major engagements fought between the National Revolutionary Army of the Republic of China and the Imperial Japanese Army of the Empire of Japan during the Second Sino-Japanese War. It was one of the largest and bloodiest battles of the entire war. Song (淞) comes from Wusong (吳凇) Hu (滬) is the abbreviation for the city itself. The battle is also referred to as 813(八.一三”淞沪抗战), denoting August 13, the date when battle began. 1937 Battle of Shanghai was a full-scale battle signifying the beginning of an all-out war between the two countries. The first gunshot was fired at Xhabei(闸北), Shanghai, the location close to Fudan city campus.

After the Battle of Shanghai, the battle adversely affected the student attendance. The education department of Nanjing government, instructed the Fudan University , together with other universities of Shanghai, Daxia University, Datong University, Guanghua University, prepared to relocate as temporary United Associated University(临时联合大学). Datong University and Guanghua University, as private university were facing financial constraints and cannot follow. Note: Daxia and Guanghua restricted to become East China Normal University (ECNU)(华东师范大学), Datong University was fragmented to various other universities, and no longer existed). Fudan and Daxia joined to form the temporary united associated university and moved separately to Jiangxi(江西) and Guizhou(贵州).

China started the resistance war against Japan (抗日战争), Fudan university moved to Beibei, Chongqing. On 12th November, Shanghai was occupied by Japanese Imperial Army. The united associated university in Jiangxi decided to move to Guiyang and merged with united associated university in Guizhou. Students continued their long journey and arrived Chongqing in December. The community in Chongqing welcome the Fudan to stay there in Sichuan.

By 1937 Fudan had established four schools (Arts, Sciences, Law, and Business), which were made up of sixteen departments, a secondary school, an experimental secondary school, and two elementary schools for compulsory education. It became one of the most important institutions of academic research and higher education in southeast China.

1938- The Fudan University in Chongqing commenced classes in Febuary with high spirit. There were about 60 graduates from Fudan Chongqing campus for the year.

Students remained in Shanghai also commenced classes(留沪复旦复课)。During the summer, there were 55 graduates for the year

1941 – 1947 Fudan National University(Chongqing)

1941 - The First Session of the 5th Congress of the Executive Yuan (Council) of the Repulic of China voted on 25th, November, 1941 to nationalize the Chongqing Community of Private Fudan University. Wu Nan-xuan (吴南轩)was appointed president of the University.

The Pacific War started on 8th December, Imperial Japanese Army entered Shanghai and based their camps at International Settlement or concession settlement(上海租界). President Li Deng Hui declared that the university practiced “ Three NOs Principle”( 三不主义), which means “ No registration with the Japanese registry, No acceptance of Japanese aids, No interference of university affairs by Japanese”. Even within the hostile environment of Japanese occupation, the university insisted no teaching of Japanese language.

1946- In August , Chongqing Fudan returned to Shanghai(复旦大学渝校的师生回到上海). The university moved to the original campus of Jiangwan in Shanghai

1947 – On 5th July ,Li Deng Hui declared the topic on Spirit of Fudan(复旦精神”) in the graduation ceremony. He said “…服务、牺牲、团结,是复旦的精神,也是你们的责任!”( Service, Sacrifice, and Solidarity is the spirit of the Fudan, it is your responsibility to practice it)

1949 - The university now consists of Art, Science, Law, Commerce, Agriculture Falculty, (学校设立文、理、法、商、农五院20 多个系(科),初具综合性大学的雏形).

In 1937-1945, Fudan University moved to Beibei, Chongqing (重庆北碚). He did not moved to Chongqing, but stay in Shanghai to continue Fudan University in Shanghai . It is perhaps he was then 64 years old and there must be someone remain in Shanghai to take care of the students who cannot moved to Chongqing, he take the decision to remain in the more uncertain and hostile environment.

March 1947, Fudan Alumni Association( http://www.fudan.org.cn/) was having anniversary dinner/meeting at a restaurant in 5 storey Tashing Company Building, Nanjing Road(南京路大新公司五层楼酒家), Former President Li Deng-hui even both eyes were blinded, attended the dinner with walking stick. After the speech by current President Zhang Yi (章益), the old president suggested that all famous universities in USA, like Havard, Yale, have their own campus flower, Fudan should have their own campus flower. He suggested University flower of Fudan, to be Magnolia denudata(白玉兰). Magnolia denudata, known as the Yulan magnolia (玉蘭花), is native to central and eastern China. It has been cultivated in Chinese Buddhist temple gardens since 600 AD. Its flowers were regarded as a symbol of purity in the Tang Dynasty and it was planted in the grounds of the Emperor's palace. It is the official city flower of Shanghai, and now also the official flower of Fudan University.
May 1947, The Hall of Deng Hui (登辉堂)was completed. Now it is known as Xiang Hui Hall.

On 19/11/1947, the beloved President of Fudan, Dr Li Deng Hui passed away in Shanghai.

Li Deng Hui's Principle

His principle in life is to follow the “Bible”, the main theme of Bible is LOVE, and the most important verse is in the book of 1 Timothy Chapter 1: 5 “The goal of this command is love, which comes from a pure heart and a good conscience and a sincere faith.(但命令的总归就是爱,这爱是从清洁的心和无亏的良心、无伪的信心生出来的)”. Li Deng Hui use Titus Chapter 2: 1-13 “ Doing good for the sake of gospel(为人之道)”as motto in life. This is the verses that he used to remind him all his life. The verses are as follow:

Doing Good for the Sake of the Gospel

1 You, however, must teach what is appropriate to sound doctrine. 2 Teach the older men to be temperate, worthy of respect, self-controlled, and sound in faith, in love and in endurance.
3 Likewise, teach the older women to be reverent in the way they live, not to be slanderers or addicted to much wine, but to teach what is good. 4 Then they can urge the younger women to love their husbands and children, 5 to be self-controlled and pure, to be busy at home, to be kind, and to be subject to their husbands, so that no one will malign the word of God.

6 Similarly, encourage the young men to be self-controlled. 7 In everything set them an example by doing what is good. In your teaching show integrity, seriousness 8 and soundness of speech that cannot be condemned, so that those who oppose you may be ashamed because they have nothing bad to say about us.

9 Teach slaves to be subject to their masters in everything, to try to please them, not to talk back to them, 10 and not to steal from them, but to show that they can be fully trusted, so that in every way they will make the teaching about God our Savior attractive.

11 For the grace of God has appeared that offers salvation to all people. 12 It teaches us to say “No” to ungodliness and worldly passions, and to live self-controlled, upright and godly lives in this present age, 13 while we wait for the blessed hope—the appearing of the glory of our great God and Savior, Jesus Christ, 14 who gave himself for us to redeem us from all wickedness and to purify for himself a people that are his very own, eager to do what is good.

Awards and Honours

honorary member, Chung Hwa Guild of Batavia (1906) ; fellow of the American Geographical Society (1915) ;honorary president of the Huai River Conservancy (1922) ; honorary Litt.D., St. John's University, Shanghai (1919) ; he took an active part in the Student Movement in 1918 ; chairman of the League of Public Organizations to protest against the treaty affecting Chinese rights and oppose China's signature to the Peace Conference at Versailles ; during the Washington Conference he was chairman of the People's National Diplomatic Federation representing 180 organizations all over China; he has held the following honorary positions: chairman, Overseas Chinese Association ; vice-chairman, World Chinese Students Federation ; director, Pan-Pacific Union; director, Christian Educational Association of China ; director, Amoy University ; chairman, National Anti-Opium Association ; member, National Government Opium-Suppression Commission ; member, Diplomatic Commission of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs
(source: Who's who in China)

Legacies

(i) There was a road within Fudan University, Handan Road Campus(复旦大学邯郸路校区), named after Li Deng Hui(李登辉),Deng Hui Ring Road(登辉环路).
(ii)The Hall of XiangHui (相辉堂),original name was actually Hall of Tenghui (登辉堂)when built in 1947, but it was changed to Xianghui in 1985 during the Fudan 80th anniversary.Named after both Ma Xiong Bo(马相伯) and Li Deng Hui(李登辉), the former principals of Fudan Public School(now Fudan University).
(iii) In Chongqing , the old premise of Fudan University, there is a small tower, named after Lee Deng Hui, the hall of Deng Hui(登辉堂).

References:

1.History of Fudan, http://www.fudan.edu.cn/englishnew/about/history.html
2.Fudan Alumni Association, http://www.fudan.edu.cn/englishnew/alumni/association.html
3. http://www.blueskiescom.com/alumni/feb_mar_06/headliner_li_denghui.htm
4. 復旦大學校長李登輝 64歲抗日被打, http://www.stnn.cc:82/gate/big5/history.stnn.cc/people/200911/t20091123_1190065.html
5. 校长之楷模 青年之导师——纪念李登辉校长诞辰133周年, http://news.fudan.edu.cn/2005/0420/6781.html
6. 一代代母校情传后人--儿子李贤政谈李登辉校长, http://www.35edu.com/School/Principal/20110108/45924.html
7. Ma Xiangbo 馬相伯 (1849-1939), http://ricci.rt.usfca.edu/biography/view.aspx?biographyID=1407
8. SEJARAH SINGKAT TIONG HOA HWE KOAN BATAVIA DAN SEKOLAH TIONG HOA HWE KOAN (PA HOA), http://www.pahoa.or.id/history.php
9. 李登辉_(教育家),  http://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/