Saturday, November 26, 2011

被遗忘在垃圾堆的大总统秘书- 雷铁崖(Lei Tieya )

在自贡贡井和平广场,曾经屹立着一个雕像,他就是贡井人的骄傲--孙中山临时大总统的秘书---雷铁崖.

雷铁崖是谁?谁是雷铁崖?

雷铁崖(1873—1920),原名昭性,字泽皆,入同盟会后署名铁崖。清同治12年9月13日(1873年11月2日)出生在富顺县自流井石头沟(今贡井区双塘乡石沟村)一盐商家庭.

四川自贡人吴玉章(1878-1966)、谢奉琦(1882-1908)和“雷铁崖(1873-1920)堪称辛亥革命之“三杰”....

雷铁崖是槟城光華日報第一任總編輯(1910-1912).....

1910,檳城閱書報社带头开会议决招股出版,选出六人专办此事,他们是:黄金庆、陈新政、丘明旭、杨汉翔、林贻博及曾受兰。时适胡汉民因营救汪精卫(因在北京刺杀摄政 王戴沣不遂被捕(1910年4月16日))出狱事来槟城会陈璧君(她是槟城人,于1912年在广州下嫁汪精卫),巧遇上阅书报社要组织报馆,乃由胡汉民代 撰招股序文及简章,并即介绍编辑人员。雷铁崖(曾任总编辑)及张仕鹃即为胡汉民与孙中山商定后所聘请者(谢诗坚, 2010)

創刊於1910年12月2日的《光華日報》,是由中華民國國父孫中山先生創立,報名出自中山先生的構想,含「光復華夏」之意,中山先生並親手寫下這四個字,這四個字即是近百年來《光華日報》的刊頭和建築物招牌上的字體。《光華日報》创刊社址是120号打铜仔街(120, Armenian Street, Penang)

雷铁崖为创刊(1910年12月2日,即庚戌年农历十一月初一)初期的《光华日报》报头题字。

《光華日報》由胡漢民和檳城華僑如黃金慶、吳世榮、陳新政等共同創刊,第一任總編輯為中山先生欣賞的四川才子雷鐵崖。當時是中山先生授意胡漢民寫信力邀雷鐵崖,再由中山先生兄長孫眉到上海力邀,雷鐵崖才同意到檳城上任,而在雷鐵崖的邀請之下,戴季陶(又名戴天仇)也南來檳城出任編輯之職。

創刊初期,《光華日報》每天出版兩大張,社論、新聞、廣告一應具全,為了爭奪保皇派報紙的輿論陣地,雷鐵崖在《光華日報》履任的一年餘期間,以社論、諧文、笑話、雜談的方式,發表文章近百篇,他極具震撼力和鼓動性的寫作方式,日獲當地華僑敬重,國民黨元老馮自由後來曾說,南洋華僑在辛亥革命中提供的人力和財力,雷鐵崖的一枝筆功不可沒。

在這期間,《光華日報》風行海內外,上海、廣州、福州、檀香山、舊金山、香港、新加坡等地71處均設代理。後來中山先生革命成功出任臨時大總統之際,雷鐵崖還曾返大陸擔任中山先生的祕書。

據1911年5月24日的檳榔嶼《光華日報》記載,羅仲霍(1881-1911, 黄花岗烈士)回國前曾拜訪自貢名人雷鐵崖,兩個人行祭飲之禮後,羅仲霍自言自語說:「此行實省老母,顧能再南渡否,不可知。」國難當前,羅仲霍仍有拳拳孝心,難怪雷鐵崖感慨地說:「世豈有忘親事敵之人,而能捨生取義者哉。」

他担任斯职为期一年有余,1912 年返国抵沪.

1920年5月8日,雷铁崖这位中国近代史上一生追求革命,四次创办刊物并任主编或主笔的宣传家重病去世,终年48岁。

今天, 雷铁崖的雕像被遗忘在垃圾堆中.....

遗憾, 遗憾.....

报业巨子、诗人雷铁崖(1873-1920)
陈思逊

(一)

雷铁崖是辛亥革命时期的报业巨子、诗人,曾任临时大总统孙中山的秘书。雷铁崖原名昭性,字泽皆,初号詟皆,正号铁崖,联系其姓氏,用意欲以雷霆之声唤醒国人。1873年11月2日 (清同治十二年九月十三日),生于四川富顺县自流井(今属自贡市)一盐商家庭。在弟兄五人中雷昭性行四,后因父亲经营盐业不善而遭破产,雷铁崖只得辍学,割牛草助父谋生。1894年(清光绪二十年),雷铁崖与李宗吾、谢奉奇、曾昭鲁等同入炳文书院,就读于卢庆家山长门下。1900年,参加府试,与弟雷民心(昭仁)同进秀才。求学期问,雷嗜性理学,言行凝重,曾自比宋儒,被同学戏吁为詟圣。随二十世纪初,空前严重的民族危机和民主革命思想的广泛传播,雷深受感染,开始接受新思想,“好说改革,乡人目为王安石”。1904年6月,他偶遇自东京留学归来者,得悉东京留学界情况,极思往会该处革命分子。乃于当年9月,约集同志赴日留学。是时家乡风气末开,父兄阻其行。得母陈氏与岳父李玉廷之助,潜行得脱,雷铁崖启程是半夜偷逃的,只有好友张荔丹在釜溪河畔送行。后由泸州东下,出三峡,11月抵沪,于1905年1月到达日本,先后就读于大成学校和宏文学院。作为“激荡于新潮流,民族思想愈勃发不可遏”的诗人,以挺身而出拯救危亡为己任,现在他终于如愿东渡,“一曲骊歌辞祖国,几回搔首望慈严”;他在《旅夜偶书》中吟道:“难国风尘奴隶泪,北听烽火虎狼兵。男儿不拯神州劫,辜负龙泉壁上鸣。”在《步剑华原韵》中写道:“渭水潮流归猛恶,骊山烽火伴登临。匈奴未灭家河有?无定河边莫苦吟。”

1905年,孙中山自美国抵日本,8月20日,中国同盟会在东京成立。五天后,雷铁崖由孙中山介绍、川籍同学黄树中主盟加入。他经常撰述革命论作,发表于《民报》。9月,与四川留日学生共同创办《鹃声》杂志,开始其文字鼓吹的革命生涯。《鹃声》以“发明公理,拥护人权”为主旨,通过宣传,唤起四川及全国同胞挽救民族危机,建设新的中国。在创刊词中引用了古诗句:“子规夜半犹蹄血,不信东风唤不回”,以表明同仁的恳切态度和坚定信心。雷铁崖任主笔的《鹃声》杂志,因主张革命排满最激烈,被清吏参奏为“专以叛国革命为宗旨”;“清政府惊呼:”“此报若行,将乱中国”。遂通过驻日公使明令封禁。1907年3至5月,雷铁崖独立复刊《鹃声》,出版《鹃声》复兴第一号,改用文言文作掩护,继续坚持爱国革命宣传活动,在文章中,主张用革命手段破坏专制政体,“恢复祖国,以建民主政体”。

1907年12月,吴玉章在东京创办《四川》杂志,雷铁崖担任编辑和撰述工作。该杂志以“输入文明,开通民智”为宗旨,有“西南半壁警钟”之称,在当时颇有影响。雷不仅诗兴联翩,大抒爱国怀抱,还认为蜀中西鄙之地,锢蔽为甚,他必须效申公说法,一醒聋玻,呕心沥血。他在论著《警告全蜀》的长篇论述中,以犀利的文笔,记述了自《辛丑条约》签订后,帝国主义瓜分中国的险象,我国子民处于“刀下之肉糜”和“枪下之血肉”之境遇。要挽救中国的危亡,就必须破除对政府、官吏、士绅的“依赖病”,依靠爱国志士的共同努力来完成。他号召人们“各尽心力,合力图谋”去拯救国家。《四川》杂志后来因言论激烈,被日本政府封禁。1909年7月,返沪任中国新公学等校教职,以民族思想灌输学生,其间因仇家以革命党陷害,清吏指名捕拿,仓卒间逃到杭州西湖白云庵为僧。在为僧期间,仍任浙学生创办的《越报》编辑,作发刊词,并撰《名说》,批判儒家的纲常名教思想。他在文中疾呼:“今之中国,已如大厦之将倾,非推去旧宇、重建鸿模,其何以历风霜而蔽风雨?故欲谋今日之中国,必先涤尽旧日之陈朽,以改良社会之观念。”而后始足“以铸造新国民,以竞争新世界。”这时期雷也发表了不少诗歌,在《题〈四川〉杂志》末尾写道:“强权世界风云惨,亡国名词父老思。一寸河山一寸泪,写来红润笔花枝。”在《忆蜀》中则表现诗人对故乡的怀念之情,其中吟曰:“哀鸿遍野草离离,怕说红羊浩劫时。岂独焚身高氏鬼,又逢哭庙汉家儿。三秋禾黍蜀官泪,五色花笺古井悲。白雪阳春和不得,萦怀故国总情痴。”

(二)

1908年底,雷铁崖由日本回国,寓居上海。他痛人心不醒,思借学校教育鼓吹革命,乃受聘于上海中国新公学任教,民国名人胡适也在该校任英语教师,胡与川藉学生但懋辛等人来往较多,因此与雷也有交往。1909年秋,端方在上海搜捕革命党人,雷铁崖被通缉。匆忙中雷向胡适借了床棉被,连夜赶到杭州白云庵出家,怀着“英雄失败只逃禅”的无奈心情遁入空门。每晚都睡不着,睡不着就写诗,以哀鸣啼血的杜鹃自况,用悲愤的歌声唤醒国人。诗作中充满了 “杜鹃夜半声凄绝,不是愁人也泪流”, “竖尽星旗思拍马,招来蜀魂再啼鹃”。“杜字啼红春欲泪.长弘化碧月留痕”“一寸山河一寸泪,啼来红润笔花枝”, “五月悲秋游子梦,三更啼月蜀王魂”; “身随野鹤饭金粟,心有啼鹃痛铁函”, “鹃因口瘁啼衔赤,烛为心伤泪堕红”之类的诗句。不仅四川党人读了要流泪,在南社中也广为传诵,博得了“啼鹃诗人”的美名。在《参禅白云古刹苦不能静诗以遣之》的长诗中,叙述他身坐蒲团,心却荡游;“忽刺秦皇胸,忽斩楼兰首。忽悲乌江驹,忽饮黄龙酒;或击祖生楫。或撞亚父斗;或恸钟期情,或泣任肪后。”有时坐着坐着,还忽然佯狂地唱起《满江红》来。后来他吟诵着“金戈铁马文明血,荆棘铜驼祖国秋。谁遣骄儿横海窟.阿童持节下龙舟”,乘槎去了南洋。

1910年7月,反清革命活动处于低潮,孙中山决定将南洋支部迁往马来西亚地区的槟榔屿。当时以孙中山为首的革命派,急需南洋华侨提供足够的财力、人力,以持续支持在华南地区的武装起义。这就需要大造革命舆论,来鼓动华侨捐资筹款。而此前革命派建立的“开明演说书报社”、《中兴日报》,已相继关闭和停刊,因此,孙中山决定创办《光华日报》。中山先生原想让胡汉民任总编,后考虑雷铁崖最恰当,便让胡邀请雷来槟榔屿,又让长兄孙眉到上海催促。1910年秋,雷从上海出发,经香港到南洋,筹组该报创刊,并由方次石、周杜鹃等人协助。《光华日报》的命名,为孙中山先生手定,意思是“光复华夏”。张群指出:“光华者,以光复中华为职志者也。光有二义,一曰光复,二曰光大。”“在清之季,革命力量集中于推翻满清帝制,故先破坏而后建设,宣传方针亦准此趋向,以努力创造环境,前仆后继,再接再厉,艰难险阻,百折不挠,卒能有所成就,收文字革命之功。”

《光华日报》于当年12月2日创刊后,即与《槟城新报》为首的保皇党报刊,展开激烈论战。在论战中,雷铁崖笔锋犀利,鞭辟入里,文笔极富鼓动性和震撼力。他不仅以社论长文制敌,还间以谐文、短论、幽默、小品、时评等灵活多样的形式出击,予论敌以重创。经过近100天的大论战,《槟城新报》招架不住,连换三任主笔,最后败下阵来。南洋华侨从此对雷非常敬重。革命派从而夺取了槟榔屿这块舆论阵地,并取代了新加坡成为同盟会海外革命指挥中心。其时,孙中山召开槟榔屿会议不久,即赴美洲各地劝募华侨,走前特请雷铁崖教授两女孙蜒孙婉国学。1911年底,孙蜒到美国留学。次年雷接到孙蜒从美国的来信,正打算回复时,却得到意外的消息:孙蜒因病回澳门已不治而逝,年仅19岁。悲痛之余,曾写诗悼曰:“一书绝笔悲无复,万里还乡病不知。噩耗骤闻伤往事,蛮风蜒雨学诗时”。雷铁崖主持《光华日报》一年有余,发表署名文章达278篇之多,长篇连载64次,诗作21首,加上旧作整理,几乎天天都有雷的作品见报。这是雷铁崖办报生涯中,最为辉煌的时期。该报畅销各地,一时洛阳纸贵。上海、广州、汕头、福州等地,多家报社代为销售,其设在香港、南洋和美洲等地的代理处,多达71个。国民党元老冯自由曾回忆说:“时总理远游欧美,黄克强、胡汉民均已他适。独次石与蜀人雷铁崖在报上大声急呼,发聋振聩,使英、荷两属侨胞之精神为之大振。”后来,南洋华侨在人力物力上大力支持孙中山,为国民革命作出了巨大贡献,其中雷铁崖的宣传鼓动,功不可没。

(三)

1912年元旦,中华民国政府在南京成立,孙中山被选为临时大总统,胡汉民任总统府秘书长,雷铁崖应邀担任秘书,并转邀好友柳亚子同往。柳受不了约束,以吃不惯西餐为借口,挂冠先去上海。只干了半个月,当时胡汉民等人主张对袁世凯和谈,雷铁崖极为不满,结果只干了半个月,也卷被辞职,索性到西湖游玩去了。走时写下一首诗:“一笑飘然去,霜风透骨寒。八年革命党,半月秘书官。稷下竽吹暂,邯郸梦已残。西湖山色好,莫让老憎看。”同年6月,雷铁崖回四川探亲。在轮船上,一位不堪主妇凌虐的幼婢,因过度疲惫而失足坠江,诗人为此悲愤难抑,在斥责封建专制的不平等后,面对大洋彼岸的自由民主先驱嗟谈:“共和虽云建,平等究何果。谣望美利坚,呜呼林肯颇。”回到故乡自流井,时隔八年,物是人非,心情十分复杂,他对此吟诗曰:“半肩行李带嚣尘,历遍风云剩此身。万里初归沧海客,十年重见故乡人。离家岂识桑田改,入境频惊景物新。望到闾门翻瑟缩,倦游季子旧时贫。”同年年底,雷铁崖应邀到北京,担任国民政府嵇勋局审议员,并参加垦植协会本部工作,同时兼代《民主报》主笔。

1913年3月20日,宋教仁在上海车站被刺。22日,雷铁崖发表《宋教仁被暗杀之研究》,抨击袁世凯政府为“暗杀政府”,“厉行专制,灭绝革命”。4月,袁世凯向英、法、日、德、俄五国签订善后大借款,他又著文斥“政府之罪恶”。 讨袁 “二次革命”失败后,袁世凯大肆控捕革命党人,身居北京的雷铁崖也受到监视,处境艰危。他在德国友人何德梅的帮助下,不久即潜离北京,经上海、福建转赴南洋,并于1914年5月在新加坡创办《国民日报》,继续从事反袁宣传。该报由雷铁崖和金碧梧主笔政,雷撰写了发刊词,紧接着发表长文《敬告南洋同志》,揭露袁世凯祸国殃民的罪行,劝导华侨再接再厉坚持革命,对那些势利而又投机的“准同志”,作了辛辣的讽刺和斥责。1915年1月17日,他又发表《梅袁同异论》,把袁世凯与恶魔梅特里(Metternich,1848年前奥地利外交大臣和首相)相提并论,说袁之侦探密布全国,“暗杀栽诬,万恶丛发”,其特务害民手段,较之梅特里“辣心毒手有过之无不及”。此后,他一发而不可收拾,继续写出大量诗文反袁,直到当年9月,《国民日报》因故停刊为止。

1916年6月,袁世凯病死,雷铁崖曾一度回到上海。鉴于当时政府受北洋军阀掌控,局势仍很混乱,雷只有重返新加坡。由于国事日非,忧怀难释,他就借酒浇愁,时在醉乡,终于渐成精神病态。只要有人提到国事,他就狂歌笑骂不止。南洋华侨于1919年2月护送雷回上海修养,后因再度发病,朋友只好将雷送回老家自流井。雷铁崖回乡后的晚景,据厚黑教主李宗吾所见,这位啼鹃诗人仍是“满肚皮不合时宜,对时事非常愤懑。旋得疯癫病,终日抱一瓶酒,逢人即乱说。常常独自一人,倒卧街中,人事不醒,警察看见把他弄回。”1920年5月8日,雷铁崖重病去世,终年48岁。“鹃因口瘁啼衔赤”,这位中国近代史上的志士仁人,死得非常凄清寂寞。1925年3月,上海《民国日报》在“征求雷铁崖先生诗文启事”中写道:他“坎坷一生,未尝稍贬其节”、“革命先觉,功成不居,蒿目时艰,卒以忧死”等语,对雷铁崖的一生,做了恰当的评价。

(四)

雷铁崖还是辛亥革命时期一位有成就的诗人,其书法也名噪学界。他同清末民初的重要革命文学团体“南社”及柳亚子等人关系密切。从1910年4月“南社”在西湖唐庄第二次雅集起,雷铁崖多次参加“南社”的集会和重要活动。柳亚子称他“工诗文书法”,大陆华东师范大学出版社印行的《雷铁崖集》一书中,收有一百余篇诗作。综观雷铁崖的诗歌作品,绝无旧时文人吟风弄月、无病呻吟之作,而是以爱国精神和革命宣传为主线。他前期去国怀想,游子苦吟,充满了对国家危亡和民生凋敝的忧愤之情。当国家面临列强侵略,人民在苦难中呻吟,而清朝统治者却一派歌舞升平,成天醉生梦死,“满座貂禅贺太平”,自然引起爱国者的愤懑。作为“激荡于新潮流,民族思想愈勃发不可遏”的诗人,以挺身而出拯救危亡为己任,他在《旅夜偶书》中吟道:“难国风尘奴隶泪,北听烽火虎狼兵。男儿不拯神州劫,辜负龙泉壁上鸣。”在《步剑华原韵》中写道:“渭水潮流归猛恶,骊山烽火伴登临。匈奴未灭家河有?无定河边莫苦吟。”同时,又以哀鸣啼血的杜鹃自况,用悲愤的歌声唤醒国人。诗作中充满了“杜鹃夜半声凄绝,不是愁人也泪流”, “竖尽星旗思拍马,招来蜀魂再啼鹃”。“杜字啼红春欲泪.长弘化碧月留痕”“一寸山河一寸泪,啼来红润笔花枝”, “五月悲秋游子梦,三更啼月蜀王魂”; “身随野鹤饭金粟,心有啼鹃痛铁函”, “鹃因口瘁啼衔赤,烛为心伤泪堕红”之类的诗句。不仅四川党人读了要流泪,在南社中也广为传诵,博得了“啼鹃诗人”的美名。

雷铁崖的后期诗歌,表现出对民主革命的不成功,充满了极为失望的情绪。由于辛亥革命不彻底,袁世凯“帝制自为,颠覆共和”,致使专制主义复辟。雷铁崖力主反袁,把这个“冢中枯骨”称黄之日,视为共和“出殡”之时。他怒斥这一独夫民贼“终使神皋归分擘,河山何处余寸尺”;他常表现出落寞、悲愤难平的心境,意识到民生问题的严峻与迫切,他在《彝陵夜泊》中写道:“国难未闻生卜式,闾闫安得稳高眠。”在回川的路上,他一面吟诵“漫嗟行路难,吾将归老矣”、“英雄仍作旧书生”;一面又放浪形骸,流连歌场声色,“妇人醇酒傲风尘”。他常借酒浇愁,吟诗作赋,继而乘醉狂书。他思想矛盾,报国无门,反映出当时一位忧国忧民诗人的复杂心情,也是中国近代志士仁人中悲剧性格的人物。这就注定了他的诗歌,具有苍劲沉凝而又凄婉悲壮的风格。

(source: 陈思逊 自贡市民间文艺家协会副主席, http://www.eyii.com/news/member/20071014/2729.html)

< Copyright © 一宁网 转载时请务必以超链接形式标明文章原始出处和作者信息 (http://www.eyii.com/news/member/20071014/2729.html ) / 陈思逊 自贡市民间文艺家协会副主席>

雷铁崖故居 & 雷铁崖墓

雷铁厓故居地址及位置:四川省自贡市贡井区长土镇石沟村 3 组,背靠池塘山,面向石头沟及东碳厂。北纬 29 21,东经 104 42,海拔高程 331.7 米。 雷铁压故居始建于清中期,坐北向南。占地面积约 3000 平方米。贡井名人辛亥革命志士雷铁压的祖宅,现存建筑面积 350平方米,原有上、中、下三厅,戏楼,左、右侧院构成,庭院式四层复四合院,木柱、半架结构、悬山式屋顶、屋脊灰塑宝顶,飞檐翘角,檐下雕梁画栋,门窗、撑仿、柱础均存雕功。现大部分布局改变、结构改变。雷家大房子修建一直是雷氏家族住宅,解放时政府接收分给村民居住,部分留给雷家子孙。雷铁压从政府辞职回乡,居住于雷家大房子老宅并在老宅病逝,去世后即葬在雷家大房子左侧坡地上。该院落1957 年中厅被焚毁,由于村民修拆建布局和结构大变,现仅剩后厅一列正房,面阔 5 间 23 米,进深 3 间 13 . 28 米。 2006 年 7 月,贡井区将雷家大院及雷铁压墓公布不可移动文物点。

“原来这个院子很大,有八个天井,几十间屋,现在雷家的人都搬走了……这的确是一座大院子,但已经残破不堪得让人感到苍凉。不过,其高耸的屋脊和有着精美浮雕的挑撑依稀可见曾经的风光。老人热心地指着大院东面荒坡中一小快草地说,“这就是雷铁崖的坟”。我们都感到吃惊:这哪像个坟啊?既无垒土,更无墓碑,分明是一堆荒草嘛!我们虔心暴走半天而来,就权当它是铁崖墓吧!(http://zg.sced.cn/htmls/20110415163055.html)


可怜的民主革命,可悲的革命家.....

可悲的中国....自豪的经济成就,甚至不能保护自己的文化遗产, 革命家雕像,故居; 中国人已忘记了这位革命家 .....遗憾, 遗憾.....

也就是槟城人的失望....

雷铁崖是槟城光華日報第一任總編輯(1910-1912), 现在, 《光华日报》已经成为世界華文報業新聞史上發行歷史最久的華文日報.....世界曆史最久之民營華文報...

《光華日報》创刊社址是120号打铜仔街(120, Armenian Street, Penang), 如今是孫中山檳城基地紀念館.

槟城人不会忘记雷铁崖(Lei Tieya).....

References & Further Study:

1. 历史学家:1220是创刊纪念日 百年前今天《光华日报》诞生, http://cnews.cari.com.my/news.php?id=7871
2. 石头沟里闻啼鹃 暴走铁崖故居, http://zg.sced.cn/htmls/20110415163055.html
3. 被遗忘在垃圾堆的大总统秘书, http://club.kdnet.net/dispbbs.asp?boardid=1&id=6974695&page=1&1=1#6974695
4. 孙中山与《光华日报》(下),谢诗坚, http://www.kwongwah.com.my/index.php?view_type=news&date=20101220&id=24
5. 拜谒吴玉章故居 纪念辛亥革命,http://zg.sced.cn/htmls/20110415160635.html
6. 谢奉琦故居设立标牌, http://www.dgjjq.com/show.php?cid=2&classid=2&id=297
7. 大公井古盐文化旅游区, http://www.dgjjq.com/list.php?cid=3
8. 雷铁崖, http://www.phoer.net/people/l/leitieya.htm

Friday, November 25, 2011

November 11th, Memorial Day for Nanyang Transport Volunteers and the Martyrs of the World War II

The memorial was familiar to me since my childhood days, whenever you go to Air Itam,or Penang Hill,you will never miss the monument. But not many know the purpose of building up the monument there. Some said it was a war memorial, a monument to remember the death of the civilian who died during the war. Some said it was for the resistance soldiers. The story of the monument had been forgotten, and everyone treated as a normal war memorial. But the people who come to pay respect on 11th November each year, was not from the uniform, but the normal civilian. The purpose of the memorial was for world peace, it is a peace memorial, and also to remember the people who died during the 2nd World War. It is also specially mentioned about the voluntary transport workers who died at the Burma Road in Yunnan who come from Penang, and Malaysia. That is why it is called Penang Chinese War Memorial for the Nanyang Transport Volunteers and the Martyrs of the World War II(槟榔屿华侨抗战殉职机工和罹难同胞纪念碑).

My son have been witnessing the ceremony each year, being a member of Chong Hwa Confucius School band until he completed his secondary school. My uncle was also there each year, witnessing the event. There are many descendants of the Transport volunteers, who are there in the crowd, without noticed by any others. But sad to say I have not witness the event personally until today.

It was on 11-11-2011 at 11a.m., our chief minister Lim Guan Eng officiated the 60th anniversary ceremony. The year 2011 was different; the people of Penang and Penang state government have donated to facelift the memorial park. Three additional features are added. Among the new features are a memorial model of the transport workers pushing a military truck up a hill slope along the Burma – Yunnan Road, a memorial wall with carvings displaying the transport volunteers and trucks being bombed by the plane of Japanese Imperial Army, the third feature was the memorial column featuring pigeons circulating around the column, which resemble the world peace.

It was great event when we can come together to remember the people who died during the war. As I have just come back from Japan and visited the Nagasaki Peace Park and Hiroshima Peace Park. By attending the ceremony it gave me a very meaningful day. It also bring awareness to the people who may have forgotten the monument. The family of transport volunteers from Yunnan was also there. But is was pity that the organization committee did not give them a public introduction. The grandson of Mr.Tan Kah Kee(陈嘉庚), the man involved personally with the Transport Volunteers project. A public introduction will be more significant.

In the afternoon, I attended the dialogue by the family of the transport volunteers from Yunnan, and the grandson of Mr.Tan Kah Kee(陈嘉庚). The timing was not right, as it was in collision with the night event at the war memorial at Air Itam. It seems that there are not many people aware of the event. Other than our family, some retired teachers, and one Chinese cultural expert, Chang Yong Mee. The attendance was sadly low. If this type of event were held at other place, especially east coast, it will normally be full house. Sadly not Penang. The stories given by the family are very touching, each have their own unique story. Some of them still searching for the long lost family in Malaysia.

In 1939, 3,200 young men from South-East Asia, historically was called Nanyang(南洋) by Chinese, most were from Malaya, left their families and homes voluntarily to travel to China to work as drivers and mechanics during the Sino-Japanese War of 1937-1945. They left in 15 batches with 9 of 15 batches leaving from Singapore. The volunteers are called Nangiao ji gong(南侨机工)or “overseas Chinese mechanics”. One third of them lost their life in Yunan, one third returned to Malaya, the remaining one third left in Yunan, China. These 3200 volunteers included Indian, Malay men and four Chinese women. There were 300 volunteers from North Malaya of Penang, Kedah and Perlis, of which 233 were from Penang. I really hope their names will be listed at the memorial wall at the War monument at Air Itam. The list included Li Yue Mei (李月美) who was known as modern Hua Mu Lan(当代花木兰), as she also disguised as a man to serve in the Nanyang Transport Volunteers as a driver, just like the ancient Chinese woman heroine. Sadly she died during the cultural revolution in China.

Two of the family members, Xu Hongji(徐宏基) and Zhang Yunpeng(张云鹏), they are searching for their family in Muar, Johor. The other VIPs presented were Honorary Chairman(名誉会长)Chen Liren(陈立人),Chairman(会长), Lin Xiaochang(林晓昌),Tang Xiaomei(汤晓梅), historian(机工史学者),Vice chairman(副会长), Wang Shuilin (王水林), photographer(著名纪录片摄影师)与Lin Suwei(林素玮), artist(名画家).

Thank you state government, the state assemblyman Wong Hun Wei, and the Kong Ming Main Chinese Primary School(公民国民型华文小学总校), the trustee of the monument, that make the event a memorial one. Also the faithful Chong Hwa Confucius School band(孔圣庙中华中学军铜乐队), which has been playing music for the event for many years without fail.

Calling for the families of the volunteers

萧瑞兴(大山脚)、王海南(槟城)、刘桂华(槟)、谢允和(槟)、吴家香(大山脚)、吴明(双溪大年)、杨境南(吉打)、邝广源(吉打莪仑)、余德峇(吉打莪仑)及杨大胜(吉打), 柯天和、王天德、林猷川、王宁鸭、纪兰花及林树容等。

If you know any family of transport volunteers, please contact Low Toh nam(刘道南), 012-521 7412. He was a volunteer in Ipoh, who gathered information for his historical project.



童年(Childhood)

This was the song my younger brother loved during his school days. It was in the 80s. At that time I just started working, naturally there was a generation gap. But the song seems to attract my attention, and it become my favorite melody, despite the fact that I am still not able to sing the full song until today.

I do not know whether my brother still remember this song....



童年

作曲 & 作詞︰羅大佑
=================

池塘邊的榕樹上,知了在聲聲叫著夏天;
操場邊的鞦韆上,只有蝴蝶停在上面。

黑板上老師的粉筆,還在拼命吱吱喳喳寫個不停;
等待著下課,等待著放學,等待遊戲的童年。

福利社裡面什麼都有,就是口袋裡沒有半毛錢;
諸葛四郎和魔鬼黨,到底誰搶到那隻寶劍?

隔壁班的那個男孩,怎麼還沒經過我的窗前;
嘴裡的零食,手裡的漫畫,心裡初戀的童年。

總是要等到睡覺前,才知道功課只做了一點點;
總是要等到考試以後,才知道該唸的書都沒有唸。

一寸光陰一寸金,老師說過寸金難買寸光陰;
一天又一天,一年又一年,迷迷糊糊的童年。

沒有人知道為什麼,太陽總下到山的那一邊;
沒有人能夠告訴我,山裡面有沒有住著神仙。

多少的日子裡總是一個人,面對著天空發呆;
就這麼好奇,就這麼幻想,這麼孤單的童年。

陽光下蜻蜓飛過來,一片片綠油油的稻田;
水彩蠟筆和萬花筒,畫不出天邊那一條彩虹。

什麼時候才能像高年級的同學?有張成熟與長大的臉;
盼望著假期,盼望著明天,盼望長大的童年。

哦 .... 一天又一天,一年又一年,盼望長大的童年。

我有一段情

我有一段情 1957 (吳鶯音)


我有一段情(蔡琴)


我有一段情

曲 : 姚敏 / 詞 : 陳蝶衣

我有一段情呀,說給誰來聽,
知心人兒呀出了門,他一去呀沒音訊。

我的有情人呀,莫非變了心,
為什麼呀斷了信,我等待呀到如今。

夜又深呀月又明,只能懷抱七絃琴,
彈一曲呀唱一聲,唱出我的心頭恨。

我有一段情呀,唱給春風聽,
春風替我問一問,為什麼他要斷音訊。

Please also view the youtube, sing by both of them(吳鶯音 & 蔡琴 ), very touching and meaningful film, but it was not allow to embed in the blog.

吳鶯音. 蔡琴_ 我有一段情, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3dOBhzSYZnI&feature=related

Thursday, November 24, 2011

綠島小夜曲

綠島小夜曲 should be the state song of Penang, if not at least it is my unofficial state song. I have been away from Penang for more than 20 years, and this song will always remind me of my hometown, Penang. The song had been with me since the 60s, the first time I heard of this song was during my uncle's wedding, when his friend sung for the newly wed. I love the melody and the wordings, it may be a love song, but it also reflect the feeling of the travellers who are away from home, longing for returning to the homeland.

It tell you the story of an island, like my hometown Penang. The song of the green island, Penang

....and that is the only song that I can sing and remember until today.....



綠島小夜曲

曲 : 周藍萍 / 詞 : 潘英傑

這綠島像一只船 在月夜裏搖啊搖
姑娘呀 你也在我的心海裏飄啊飄
讓我的歌聲隨那微風 吹開了你的窗簾
讓我的衷曲隨那流水 不斷地向你傾訴
椰子樹的長影 掩不住我的情意
明媚的月光 更照亮了我的心
這綠島的夜已經這樣沉靜
姑娘喲 你為什麽還是默默無語


椰子樹的長影 掩不住我的情意
明媚的月光 更照亮了我的心
這綠島的夜已經這樣沉靜
姑娘喲 你為什麽還是默默無語

Tuesday, November 15, 2011

Binlang Yu(檳榔嶼) in Taiwan

Binlang Yu(檳榔嶼)was an old Chinese name for today's Penang Island. It was reported that the name was given by Admiral Zheng He of Ming dynasty during his expeditions to the South Sea in 15th Century.

By chance, I come across an article in the web, telling the story of another Binlang Yu(檳榔嶼 )in China. Politically the island belong to Taiwan. It is a small island. The island is located between Amoy or Xiamen(廈門)and Kinmen or Jinmen(金門). The other name for the island is Matsu Island(媽祖島), the name called by local people of Amoy(but not to confuse with The Matsu Islands(马祖列岛), a minor archipelago of 19 islands and islets in the Taiwan Strait administered as Lienchiang County (連江縣)).

This really surprise me. Officially it is called Zhong Hwa Binlang Yu(中华槟榔屿), Chinese Betel Nut Island.

Location of Xiamen(PR China), Kinmen Island and Penghu Island(ROC Taiwan)

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Map of Binlangyu

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Yu(嶼)in Chinese means island, Binlang(檳榔) is the name for betel nut. Taiwan and Penang was having popular habit of eating betel nut in the old days. Even today, betel nut is still popular in Taiwan, despite the habit is dying in Penang. Penang and Taiwan have betel nut culture. Logically it is not surprise to see the name of island named after betel nut.

Kinmen or Jinmen(金門)

Kinmen, also known as Jinmen and formerly as Quemoy, is a small archipelago of several islands administered by the Republic of China (Taiwan): Greater Kinmen, Lesser Kinmen, and some islets.

Administratively, it is Kinmen County of Fujian Province, ROC. The county is claimed by the People's Republic of China (PRC) as part of its own Fujian Province's Quanzhou Prefecture. Some islands of other counties, such as Wuchiu, were transferred to the jurisdiction of Kinmen County by the ROC government following its civil war defeat and retreat to Taiwan. Matsu(马祖列岛)is the other set of islands on the Fujian coast controlled by the ROC.

Many Taiwanese businesspeople use the link through Kinmen to enter the Chinese Mainland as it is seen as cheaper and easier than entering through Hong Kong. However, this changed following the 2005 Pan-Blue visits to mainland China and the presidential and legislative victories of the KMT, that allowed easier Cross-Strait relations. Kinmen has experienced a considerable economic boom as businesspeople relocate to the island for easier access to the vast markets of the People's Republic of China.

Map of Kinmen County(金門縣)


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Today, the Kinmen County consist of Jincheng Township(金城鎮)、Jinhu Township(金湖鎮)、Jinsha Township(金沙鎮)、Jinning Township(金寧鄉)、Lieyu Township(烈嶼鄉)、Wuqiu Township(烏坵鄉). The first three are urban township or Zhen(鎮)and the last three are xiang(rural township鄉), so there are 3 urban township and 3 rural townships(三鎮三鄉).

All townships in Greater Kinmen Island are with their names start with Jin (金), which means "gold". Jincheng Township(金城鎮)、Jinhu Township(金湖鎮)、Jinsha Township(金沙鎮)、Jinning Township(金寧鄉). All these golden townships are in the Kinmen Island proper(金門島)or Greater Kinmen(大金門).

Wuqiu Township(烏坵鄉) comprises Greater Qiu Islet (大坵) and Lesser Qiu Islet (小坵).The location of the township, was closer to Taiwan island, and near to Meizhou Island(湄洲岛), Xiuyu District(秀屿), of Putian(莆田市), a prefecture level City. Meizhou Island is the legendary birthplace of the goddess Matsu and a famous pilgrimage site. The township, unlike other Kinmen townships is far away from the kinmen Island. The exact location can be seen from the map at Wuciou Township Office official website, http://www.kinmen.gov.tw/MultiMedia_ImageResize.ashx?guid=404cf53a-fa1b-4806-aaa9-88bbec7d2c40

Lieyu Township(烈嶼鄉)encompasses the entire Lesser Kinmen Island, it is next to Kinmen island(Big Kinmen), and is the closest to Xiamen. Lieyu Township (烈嶼鄉), commonly known as Lesser Kinmen (小金門) is located to the Southwest of main Kinmen Island in between main Kinmen and Xiamen. It is situated outside the mouth of mainland China's Jiulong river and inside Xiamen's harbor. The distance from mainland China at the closest point is only about 5000 meters and is located in a very strategic position. Lieyu also administers Dadan (大擔) and Erdan (二擔) islands, respectively 5 and 6 km to the southwest, Bilang Yu(檳榔嶼), and other islets. In 1950, Dadan was the site of a minor battle in the Chinese Civil War, "Battle of Islet Dadan". Tseng chenggong or Koxinga(郑成功)trained his anti-Manchu soldiers at the Dadan islets.

(烈嶼,又稱小金門,位於金門本島西南西方,居於金門與廈門之間。位處於中國福建省東南隅的九龍江口外、廈門灣內,並包括大膽島、二膽島、復興嶼、猛虎嶼、獅嶼,檳榔嶼等諸小島。距離中國大陸最近的島嶼僅約0.5公里,在戰略位置上可以說是「外島中的外島,前線中的前線」)

Binlang Yu(檳榔嶼) is small islet, but a development project with the inter-strait cooperation by mainland China and Taiwan is now taking place, it may be the good sign for strait relationship. In no time, the islet will be another tourism spot.

Hokkien dialects(福建话)

Southern Fujian is home to three main Hokkien dialects. They are known by the geographic locations to which they correspond (listed north to south):

Quanzhou (Chinchew, 泉州)
Xiamen (Amoy, 廈門), which is the mixture of Quanzhou and Zhangzhou.
Zhangzhou (Changchew, 漳州)

Many of the county's inhabitants speak Hokkien. Due to their previous political isolation, most residents will say they speak "Kinmenese", as opposed to "Taiwanese" as it is commonly called in Taiwan, though the two dialects are mutually intelligible. It is geographically very near Xiamen, no more than 2 kilometers. Taiwanese Hokkien is generally similar to Xiamen. Minor differences only occur in terms of vocabulary. Like Xiamen, Taiwanese Hokkien is based on a mixture of Zhangzhou and Quanzhou speech. The residents of Wuchiu Township however speak Puxian Min, as opposed to Hokkien for the rest of Kinmen. Wuchiu Township is not close to Kinmen Island, it is far from Xiamen and close to Putian.

Penang Hokkien (槟城福建话) is a local variant of Hokkien spoken in Penang, Malaysia. It is the lingua franca among the majority Chinese population in Penang as well as other northern states of Malaysia surrounding it, and is characterised by the pronunciation of words according to the Zhangzhou (漳州) dialect, together with widespread use of Malay and English borrowed words.

So with both Kinmen and Penang speak the Minnan dialect, linguistically they are the same, even with some tainted by local influence of Malay and English(Penang), and Japanese(Taiwan), they are still mutually communicable. It is not surprise to name an island Binlang Yu.

I am wondering if Admiral Zheng He had been to Xiamen, and visited Binglang Yu like Koxinga. He named Penang after Binlang Yu of Xiamen, now Kinmen. Pulau Pinang or Penang was named after direct translation of Binlang Yu. Can Betel nut and the name of Betel Nut Island(Penang)be from Taiwan?.....

So next time, if you meet a Chinese who said he is from Binlang Yu, do not mistaken that he is from Penang, Malaysia. He may be from Binlang Yu, Kinmen, Taiwan.

Kinmen People in Malaysia(大马金门人)

金门人大马奋斗史


紀錄片落番 探金門人移民南洋史


There are Kinmen clan association or Kimmui kongsi, in Johor(馬來西亞柔佛州金同廈會館)、Malacca(馬六甲金門會館)、Selangor(巴生雪蘭莪金門會館).

槟榔同安金厦公会. Tong Aun Kim Har Association. 22, Lebuh Melayu, 10100 Penang. Tel: 604-261 0013, Fax: 604-261 0013.

I wonder is there any Kimmui clanhouse(金門會館)in Penang? and what is the number of Kimmui lang in Penang?....

Tan Sri Dato' Seri Yeoh Tiong Lay(楊忠禮), the founder of YTL Corporation Berhad, his son Tan Sri Dato' Seri (Dr) Francis Yeoh Sock Ping(楊肅斌)are famous Kimmui personality in Malaysia.

Kimmui Lang in Penang must be proud that the name of Penang is similar to an island in Kinmen.

If you feel like visiting another Penang in Kinmen, the following video may be useful for you.



If you can read Chinese, please visit 中华槟榔屿_互动百科, http://www.hudong.com/wiki/檳榔嶼;中华槟榔屿特别试验区揭牌仪式, http://www.gctaiwan.com/tequ/GB/201027/377.html; http://taconet.pixnet.net/blog/post/30707237-關注檳榔嶼的開發

槟榔屿,位于东经118°11’,北纬24°26’,是金门与厦门的中间岛,历史上曾经由金门县烈屿乡管辖。槟榔屿的面积约2.09万平方米。厦门百姓口头流传一则故事,说金门士兵将国民党旗插在岛上,我们看不顺眼,就划着小船,将他的旗子扳倒,插上我们的五星红旗。第二天,发现五星红旗被他们换掉了,于是又划着小船过去……。这样,他一来我一返,一连多次,双方都疲惫了,小岛上也就不再出现旗子。再后来,大陆与金门百姓常将小船停靠在那个岛屿上交换物品,小小的岛屿成了两地民间联系交流的桥梁。

曾经炮火连天,而今渔舟唱晚。恩怨云烟过眼,两岸本为一家。槟榔屿,这把金灿灿的钥匙,已经悄悄打开了两岸的“和平之门”、“和解之门”、“合作之门”。

2010年6月11日,金厦经济特区促进联盟正式更名为中华槟榔屿特别试验区。2009年12月12日,在海峡两岸民间团体、热心人士的积极推动下,“金厦经济特区促进联盟”在厦门大嶝岛金门湾大酒店正式启动。启动大会一致推选台湾光彩促进会会长骆宏宾先生担任主席,厦门市侨乡经济促进会会长苏福伦先生担任执行主席,海峡电力发展股份有限公司总经理班晓东担任秘书长。

References:
1. 新加坡金门会馆, http://www.kimmui.com/
2. 烈嶼風情, http://www.jhes.km.edu.tw/902005/
3. 來去烈嶼, http://tw.myblog.yahoo.com/princess-michelle/article?mid=2138&prev=2617&next=2046&sc=1
4. Islet Dadan, http://www.jhes.km.edu.tw/lieyu/english/content4/triver16.htm

Tuesday, November 8, 2011

客家本色 - 林于雯

客家世界



客家世界 (客家電視台台歌)

就像大雨後个天弓 紅鑼花色高掛在空中
希望摁个世界 多姿多彩 多情多義多笑容
紅男綠女歡歡喜喜 牽手鬧洋洋
這係客家世界 祥人个地方 等汝來聊做英雄

阿公啊 挨弦仔 阿婆就來唱山歌
句句唱出 客家个智慧

摁係 現代个客家人 世界个客家人
摁有 豐富又精采个 客家文化呦
摁係 快樂个客家人 實在个客家人
摁要 剎忙打拼 共心開創 客家世界 呦呦得呦

鮮鮮个河水 流向那大海
日久他鄉變故鄉 管汝哪位來

Wednesday, November 2, 2011

Expert: Sadness that we cannot protect our heritage

张少宽:夷平盖房建楼 槟60%古墓让路发展

2011-03-07 13:12

(槟城6日讯)根据民间学者所作的田野调查显示,槟岛原有的20多座百年大家族墓群,已经有超过60%被摧毁殆尽,余下的不到40%预料也将随时遭发展巨轮碾过。

届时,珍贵的槟岛华人史第一手资料将全数成为浮尘碎瓦,价值连建筑在墓地遗址上高楼大厦的一片砖瓦都不如,成为华人社会无法挽回的损失。

谢氏家族冢保存完好

目前,槟岛尚保存完好的墓群仅剩下位于白云山福建公冢后山,葬有闽帮代表人物谢昭盼及其子谢德顺(时钟分校原址“五层楼”故主)等人的谢氏家族冢,以及坐落在天德园的邱氏家族冢等区区数处,而最具代表性的辜氏家族冢(葬有甲必单辜礼欢、祥德路因其得名的辜尚达等)也于不久前因屋业发展被摧毁。

将毕生精力从事在华人史田野研究,并曾经出版《槟榔屿华人史话》等多本著作的民间学者张少宽告诉《南洋商报》,葬在槟岛各家族冢的人物大多在19世纪末、20世纪初赫赫有名,包括大商贾、华社代表、英政府机构的高职公务员、帮派领袖等等,他们参与的历史事件可远溯至槟岛开埠、槟城大暴动、孙中山的革命运动至马来亚独立前后,在槟岛的华人史甚至槟城历史上留有珍贵的印迹。

墓群是时代缩影

张少宽说,每座坟墓都是一个时代的缩影,尤其是槟岛大宗族或家族的墓群,因此,无论是墓碑或者坟墓里的陪葬品,对支离破碎的华人史研究而言,都是非常珍贵的文物。

“墓碑上的文字,可说是记载了比起一些史料更为详细的年份、家族关系、人名,过去由于口述历史所出现的失误,可以靠着墓碑上的资料对比纠正。”

陪葬品还原历史原貌

他透露,不同墓碑的造型,也显示出不同帮群的风格,而且随着不同的时代变化;同时,凭着对墓中陪葬品的考证,能够更加忠实还原历史人物的面貌和社会地位,具有考古价值。

“我们可以说,这些坟墓实际上都是一个时代和文化的缩影,是独一无二的史料。”

珍贵史料化为尘埃 学者疾呼难引共鸣

张少宽说,在寸土如金的槟岛,墓群被夷平建筑住宅一事其实可以理解,然而在此之前,这些墓群应该先被记录、考察,将相关的史料以影像或其他方式保存。

“可是放眼槟岛,从事此类型研究的人少之又少,官方也没有给予适当的重视,最终只能白白看着这些史料化为尘埃。”

他曾经多次呼吁华社乡团宗社重视此问题,但微弱呼声无法激发其华社的注意。

变高楼住宅区

槟岛接二连三发生古墓群被发展摧毁,或者即将摧毁的事件,其中,甲必丹辜礼欢家族墓群被草率拾金摧毁,以及甘嫲园甘氏姐妹家族墓群或也难逃发展劫数;然而实际上,类似事件早在1960年代已发生,首个被摧毁的即是孙中山的支持者、华侨革命分子吴世荣的家族墓群。

张少宽透露,陆续被夷为平地盖房的尚有家族墓群包括胡丰成(丰盛园)、邱四方(四方园)、邱石泉(怡和园)等人的墓群,现在都已经被发展为高楼住宅区。

梁超明:先进国立法保护 坟场变公园绿肺

槟州古迹信托基金会荣誉秘书梁超明指出, 在一个备有完善城市策划图的城市里,摧毁历史古坟是不被允许的。

“任何土地利用性质的改换,都会被法律的严格管控监督。”

他透露,在先进国,坟场和公园通常会被规划为城市绿肺,甚至转为休闲跑步公园,作为减少过度人口密度的一个方法;如有道路扩建工程需征用,文物古迹都会另地安置或蓄意弯道迁就。

“奈何,目前我们还无法摒弃落后国家的发展心态,以破旧换新为荣。”

民间团体势单力薄

他说,古迹信托会曾不久前提议州政府对州内的历史古坟和纪念碑进行纪录和保护工作,期望国内的重要文物遗产,能被城市策划局、国家档案、历史研究会、文化遗产部门、大学等官方机构来做有系统性的数码化纪录,甚至维修保护等工作。

“在欧美中日印等重视古迹的国度里,这些都是官方推动的文物保护工作,绝非业余性民间团体可代劳。”

(source: 南洋商报 李嘉雯独家报道(http://www.nanyang.com.my/node/339444)

Tuesday, November 1, 2011

Alternative views

There are always the other side of the story, there are always alternative views. Events and history will not happen in isolation, it was the result of the interaction between people, institutions, countries and environments. Some people become hero, just happen to be there, some people participated in the righteous agenda, but failed on the way, may be the timing is not right, or people are not ready to buy his ideas. Some people are capable to take opportunities and manipulate the situation to his advantages, and become a winner.

Sepuluh Tahun Sebelum Merdeka from fahmi reza on Vimeo.



Revolusi '48 (2008) documentary trailer from fahmi reza on Vimeo.





It was history, whether you like it or not; it was the real events that really happen in the past; the people were real. It may not meet some people's agenda, some of them may failed in their doing, for perceived good or bad, it was our history, you like it or not.....

They are part of our heritage, part of our history, they may not be a superman in popular culture, may not be idols in our political history, they may have gone unnoticed, forgotten, despised, hated, or even imprisoned or died on the way....

They are still our history, our real history; no one can take them away.....

Some become President of a new nation, some become a literature figure, some become a unionist, successful doctors, lawyers; some was forced away from their country, and returned only at old age; some died on the way of their struggle; some was disappointing for not able to achieve their objective, died of sadness and disappointment, yet some changed their path and become a millionaires or national leaders, having all glories and popularity.

Bad or good, it is for us to judge, in our individual way; no one will have the same view. We have alternative views, different views, no wrong or right, it was our history. No one can robbed away......and erased them from history....

wrong or right, does it matter to an individual? when it was all over, and when he was old and may no longer around. The implication of their involvement or their historical significance, it is for historian and future generation to judge.....

And only time can give them their ultimate destination, after 100 years, 200 years, or 1,000 years.....